Advances in Radiation Oncology in Lung Cancer (Medical Radiology)

Advances in Radiation Oncology in Lung Cancer (Medical Radiology)This is the second, completely updated edition of a comprehensive book in which many of the world’s leading lung cancer specialists discuss the recent advances in the radiation oncology of lung cancer and reflect on the latest research findings. The first three sections cover the basic science of lung cancer, clinical investigations, including histology and staging, and a wide range of fundamental treatment considerations.

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Current treatment strategies for small cell and non-small cell lung cancer are then explained and evaluated in detail, with due attention to novel approaches that promise further improvements in outcome. The various types of treatment-related toxicity are discussed, and quality of life studies and prognostic factors are also considered. After evaluating the latest technological and biological advances, including IMRT, IMAT, cyber knife treatment, and tomotherapy, the book concludes by thorough consideration of specific aspects of clinical research in lung cancer.

Contents
Part I Basic Science of Lung Cancer
Molecular Biology and Genetics of Lung Cancer …………….. 3
Dusan Milanovic
Angiogenesis and Lung Cancer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17
Wenyin Shi and Dietmar W. Siemann
Part II Clinical Investigations
Interventional Pulmonology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 45
Branislav Perin, Bojan Zaric´, and Heinrich D. Becker
Pathology of Lung Cancer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 53
Mary Beth Beasley
Radiologic Imaging of Lung Cancer. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 63
Palmi Shah and James L. Mulshine
PET/CT for Staging and Diagnosis of Lung Cancer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 75
Sigrid Stroobants
Surgical Staging of Lung Cancer for Advances in Radiation
Oncology of Lung Cancer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 89
Farhood Farjah and Valerie W. Rusch
Part III Basic Treatment Considerations
Lung Cancer Surgery . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 103
Sidhu P. Gangadharan, Walter J. Lech, and David J. Sugarbaker
Radiation Response of the Normal Lung Tissue and Lung Tumors . . . . 119
Hiromitsu Iwata, Taro Murai, and Yuta Shibamoto
xi
Radiation Time, Dose, and Fractionation in the Treatment
of Lung Cancer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 129
Daniel Gomez, Melenda D. Jeter, Ritsuko Komaki, and James D. Cox
3D Radiation Treatment Planning and Execution . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 143
Mary K. Martel
Four-dimensional Radiation Therapy for Non-Small Cell Lung
Cancer: A Clinical Perspective . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 157
Max Dahele, Johan Cuijpers, and Suresh Senan
PET and PET/CT in Treatment Planning. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 173
Michael P. Mac Manus and Rodney J. Hicks
Target Volume Definition in Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer . . . . . . . . . . 187
Lucyna Kepka and Milena Kolodziejczyk
The Radiation Target in Small-Cell Lung Cancer. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 201
Gregory M. M. Videtic
Radiation Sensitizers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 213
Anthony M. Brade and Zishan Allibhai
Radioprotectors and Chemoprotectors in the Management
of Lung Cancer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 223
Ritsuko Komaki, Zhongxing Liao, James D. Cox,
Kathy A. Mason, and Luka Milas
Systemic Therapy for Lung Cancer for the Radiation Oncologist . . . . . 247
Chandra P. Belani
Combined Radiotherapy and Chemotherapy: Theoretical
Considerations and Biological Premises . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 267
Branislav Jeremic, Dusan Milanovic, and Nenad Filipovic
Radiotherapy and Second Generation Drugs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 275
Michael Geier and Nicolaus Andratschke
Radiotherapy and Third Generation Concurrent
Chemotherapy Agents . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 291
Ross Bland, Puneeth Iyengar, and Hak Choy
Part IV Current Treatment Strategies in Early-Stage Non-Small
Cell Lung Cancer
Conventional Radiation Therapy in Early Stage
Non-small-cell Lung Cancer. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 315
Branislav Jeremic´, Sinisa Stanic, and Slobodan Milisavljevic
xii Contents
Stereotactic Ablative Radiotherapy for Early Stage Lung Cancer . . . . . 343
John H. Heinzerling and Robert D. Timmerman
Postoperative Radiotherapy for Non-Small Cell Carcinoma . . . . . . . . . 363
Ellen Kim and Mitchell Machtay
PDT-Lung. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 371
Ron R. Allison
The Role of Radiofrequency Ablation in the Treatment
of Stage 1 Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 381
John M. Varlotto, Julia A. Shelkey, and Rickhesvar P. Mahraj
Part V Current Treatment Strategies in Locally Advanced
Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer
Lung Dose Escalation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 399
Bradford S. Hoppe and Kenneth E. Rosenzweig
Radiochemotherapy in Locally Advanced Non-small-Cell
Lung Cancer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 409
Branislav Jeremic´, Francesc Casas, and Asuncion Hervas-Moron
Tri-Modality Therapy in Locally Advanced Non-Small-Cell
Lung Cancer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 433
Jan P. van Meerbeeck and Elke Vandenbroucke
Prophylactic Cranial Irradiation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 445
Jason Francis Lester
Palliative External Beam Thoracic Radiation Therapy
of Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 453
Stein Sundstrøm
Intraoperative Radiotherapy in Lung Cancer: Methodology
(Electrons or Brachytherapy), Clinical Experiences
and Long-Term Institutional Results . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 461
Felipe A. Calvo, Javier Aristu, Sergey Usychkin, Leire Arbea,
Rosa Cañón, Ignacio Azinovic, and Rafael Martinez-Monge
Brachytherapy for Lung Cancer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 477
A. Polo, M. Castro, A. Montero, and P. Navío
Part VI Current Treatment Strategies in Small Cell Lung Cancer
Limited-Disease Small-Cell Lung Cancer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 491
Branislav Jeremic´, Zˇ eljko Dobric´, and Francesc Casas
Contents xiii
Radiation Therapy in Extensive Disease Small Cell Lung Cancer . . . . . 505
Branislav Jeremic´ and Luhua Wang
Prophylactic Cranial Irradiation in Small-Cell Lung Cancer . . . . . . . . 513
Michael C. Stauder and Yolanda I. Garces
Part VII Treatment in Specific Patient Groups and Other Settings
Radiation Therapy for Lung Cancer in Elderly . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 523
Branislav Jeremic´ and Zˇ eljko Dobric´
Radiation Therapy for Recurrent Disease. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 543
Branislav Jeremic´, Jai Prakash Agarwal, and Sherif Abdel-Wahab
Radiation Therapy for Metastatic Disease . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 561
Dirk Rades
Advances in Supportive and Palliative Care
for Lung Cancer Patients . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 575
Michael J. Simoff
Part VIII Treatment-Related Toxicity
Hematological Toxicity in Lung Cancer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 597
Francesc Casas, Ferran Ferrer, and Núria Viñolas
Radiation-Induced Lung and Heart Toxicity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 609
Liyi Xie, Xiaoli Yu, Zeljko Vujaskovic, Mitchell S. Anscher,
Timothy D. Shafman, Keith Miller, Robert Prosnitz, and Lawrence Marks
Spinal Cord Toxicity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 627
Timothy E. Schultheiss
Radiation Therapy-Related Toxicity: Esophagus. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 637
Voichita Bar Ad and Maria Werner-Wasik
Brain Toxicity. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 647
C. Nieder
Part IX Quality of Life Studies and Prognostic Factors
Quality of Life Outcomes in Radiotherapy of Lung Cancer . . . . . . . . . 661
M. Salim Siddiqui, Farzan Siddiqui, and Benjamin Movsas
Prognostic Factors in Lung Cancer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 675
Frank B. Zimmermann
xiv Contents
Part X Technological Advances in Lung Cancer
Intensity-Modulated Radiation Therapy and Volumetric-Modulated
Arc Therapy for Lung Cancer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 691
Inga S. Grills and Victor S. Mangona
Image-Guided Robotic Stereotactic Ablative Radiotherapy
for Lung Tumors: The CyberKnife . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 715
Billy W. Loo Jr. and Iris C. Gibbs
Advances in Radiation Oncology of Lung Cancer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 725
Deepak Khuntia and Minesh P. Mehta
Image-Guided Radiotherapy in Lung Cancer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 735
Percy Lee and Patrick Kupelian
Proton Therapy for Lung Cancer: State of the Science. . . . . . . . . . . . . 743
David A. Bush
Carbon Ion Radiotherapy in Hypo-Fractionation Regimen
and Single Dose for Stage I Non-small-Cell Lung Cancer . . . . . . . . . . . 753
T. Miyamoto, N. Yamamoto, M. Baba, and T. Kamada
Part XI Biological Advances in Lung Cancer
Novel Cytotoxic Agents in Combination with Radiation
in the Management of Locally Advanced Non-Small
Cell Lung Cancer: Focus on Pemetrexed
and Nab-Paclitaxel [Abraxane] . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 765
Corey J. Langer
Novel Targeted Agents and Radiopharmaceuticals in Lung Cancer. . . . 773
Martin J. Edelman and Nadia Ijaz
Part XII Clinical Research in Lung Cancer
Translational Research in Lung Cancer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 793
Deepinder Singh, Kevin Bylund, and Yuhchyau Chen
Clinical Research in Radiation Oncology of Lung Cancer:
Why We Fail(ed)? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 809
Branislav Jeremic´
Pitfalls in the Design, Analysis, Presentation, and Interpretation
of Randomized Clinical Trials . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 819
Richard Stephens
Contents xv
New Directions in the Evaluation and Presentation
of Clinical Research in Lung Cancer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 827
Noelle O’Rourke, Fergus Macbeth, and Elinor Thompson
Index . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 837

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