Anatomy and Physiology for Health Professionals 3rd Edition

Anatomy and Physiology for Health Professionals 3rd Editionby Jahangir Moini (Author)

Written with health professions students in mind, the Third Edition of Anatomy and Physiology for Health Professionals offers an engaging, approachable, and comprehensive overview of human anatomy and physiology.

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The Third Edition features a total of six multifaceted ‘Units’ which build upon an understanding of basic knowledge, take readers through intermediate subjects, and finally delve into complex topics that stimulate critical thinking. Heavily revised with updated content throughout, chapters include useful features, such as Common Abbreviations,

Medical Terminology, the Metric System and more! Students will want to take advantage of the many resources available to reinforce learning –including Test Your Understanding questions that regularly assess comprehension, flash cards for self-study, an interactive eBook with more than 20 animations, and interactive and printable Lab Exercises and Case Studies.

Anatomy and Physiology for Health Professionals 3rd Edition Brief Contents

Preface xiii
About the Author xv
Acknowledgments xvi
Reviewers xvii
A Visual Walkthrough xix
SECTION I Levels of Organization 1
Chapter 1 Introduction to Human Anatomy
and Physiology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2
Chapter 2 Chemical Basics of Life . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28
Chapter 3 Cells . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 52
Chapter 4 Cellular Metabolism . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 84
Chapter 5 Tissues . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .102
SECTION II Support and Movement 127
Chapter 6 Integumentary System . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .128
Chapter 7 Bone Tissues and the Skeletal
System . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 151
Chapter 8 Articulations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .197
Chapter 9 Muscle Tissue . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .219
Chapter 10 Muscular System . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .240
Brief Contents v
SECTION III Control and Coordination 271
Chapter 11 Neural Tissue . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .272
Chapter 12 Central Nervous System . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .296
Chapter 13 Peripheral Nervous System and Reflex Activity . . . . . . . 327
Chapter 14 Autonomic Nervous System . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .347
Chapter 15 Special Senses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .364
Chapter 16 Endocrine System . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .391
SECTION IV Transport 421
Chapter 17 Blood . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .422
Chapter 18 The Heart . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .449
Chapter 19 Vascular System . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .472
Chapter 20 Lymphatic System and Immunity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .508
SECTION V Environmental Exchange 537
Chapter 21 Respiratory System . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .538
Chapter 22 Urinary System . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .571
Chapter 23 Fluid, Electrolyte, and Acid-Base Balance . . . . . . . . . .595
Chapter 24 Digestive System………………………….617
SECTION VI Continuity of Life 657
Chapter 25 Reproductive System . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .658
Chapter 26 Pregnancy and Development . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .690
Chapter 27 Heredity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .714
vi Brief Contents
Appendix A Common Abbreviations and Symbols 732
Appendix B Medical Terminology 740
Appendix C The Metric System 744
Appendix D Reference Laboratory Values – Blood and Urine 746
Glossary 750
Index 809
vii
Contents
Preface . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .xiii
About the Author . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . xv
Acknowledgments . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . xvi
Reviewers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . xvii
A Visual Walkthrough . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . xix
SECTION I Levels of Organization 1
Chapter 1 Introduction to Human
Anatomy and Physiology . . . . . . . . . 2
Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3
Organization Levels of the Body . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4
Essentials for Life . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5
Homeostasis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7
Organization of the Body . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9
Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24
Key Terms . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24
Learning Goals . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24
Critical Thinking Questions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25
Review Questions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26
Essay Questions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27
Chapter 2 Chemical Basics of Life . . . . . . . . . . 28
Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29
Basic Chemistry . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29
Atoms, Molecules, and Chemical Bonds . . . . . . . . . . . 29
Biochemistry . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37
Adenosine Triphosphate . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 47
Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 48
Key Terms . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 49
Learning Goals . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 49
Critical Thinking Questions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 50
Review Questions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 50
Essay Questions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 51
Chapter 3 Cells . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 52
Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 53
Structure of the Cell . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 53
Movements Through Cell Membranes . . . . . . . . . . . . 68
Cell Cycle . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 74
Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 79
Key Terms . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 80
Learning Goals . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 81
Critical Thinking Questions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 82
Review Questions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 82
Essay Questions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 83
Chapter 4 Cellular Metabolism . . . . . . . . . . . . 84
Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 85
Metabolic Reactions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 85
Control of Metabolic Reactions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 87
Oxidation-Reduction Reactions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 88
Chemical Energy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 88
Cellular Respiration and Metabolism of
Carbohydrates . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 88
Metabolism of Lipids . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 96
Metabolism of Proteins . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 97
Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 98
Key Terms . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 99
Learning Goals . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 99
Critical Thinking Questions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 100
Review Questions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 100
Essay Questions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 101
Chapter 5 Tissues . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 102
Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 103
Types of Tissues . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 103
Tissue Membranes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 120
Tissue Repair . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 122
Effects of Aging on Various Tissues . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 122
Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 123
viii Contents
Chapter 8 Articulations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 197
Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 198
Classifications of Joints . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 198
Types of Joint Movements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 208
Intervertebral Joints . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 210
Intervertebral Ligaments . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 211
Joint Injuries . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 211
Effects of Aging on the Joints . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 212
Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 215
Key Terms . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 215
Learning Goals . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 216
Critical Thinking Questions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 217
Review Questions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 217
Essay Questions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 218
Chapter 9 Muscle Tissue . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 219
Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 220
Classification of Muscle Tissues . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 220
Characteristics of Muscle Tissue . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 221
Functions of the Muscles . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 222
Coverings of Connective Tissue . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 222
Blood Supply and Nerve Attachments . . . . . . . . . . . 222
Structure of Skeletal
Muscle Fibers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 223
Contraction Stimulus . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 225
Neuromuscular Junction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 226
Action Potential . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 227
Sarcoplasmic Reticulum
and Transverse Tubules . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 227
Somatic Motor Neurons . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 228
Motor Units……………………………….. 229
Muscle Twitch . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 230
Energy Sources for Contraction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 231
Smooth Muscle . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 233
Effects of Aging on Muscle Tissue . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 235
Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 236
Key Terms . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 236
Learning Goals . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 237
Critical Thinking Questions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 238
Review Questions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 238
Essay Questions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 239
Key Terms . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 124
Learning Goals . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 124
Critical Thinking Questions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 125
Review Questions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 125
Essay Questions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 126
SECTION II Support and Movement127
Chapter 6 Integumentary System . . . . . . . . 128
Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 129
Skin . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 129
Accessory Structures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 136
Functions of the Integumentary System . . . . . . . . . 141
Response of the Integument to Injuries
and Wounds . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 142
Effects of Aging on the Integumentary System . . . 143
Skin Cancer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 144
Burns . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 145
Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 147
Key Terms . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 147
Learning Goals . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 148
Critical Thinking Questions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 149
Review Questions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 149
Essay Questions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 150
Chapter 7 Bone Tissues and the
Skeletal System . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 151
Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 152
Classifications of Bones . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 152
Structures of Bones . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 154
Growth and Development of Bones . . . . . . . . . . . . . 159
Functions of Bones . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 162
Bone Homeostasis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 163
Bone Homeostatic Imbalance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 167
Skeletal Organization . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 168
Effects of Aging on the Skeletal System . . . . . . . . . . 191
Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 192
Key Terms . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 193
Learning Goals . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 194
Critical Thinking Questions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 195
Review Questions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 195
Essay Questions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 196
Contents ix
Effects of Aging on the Brain . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 320
Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 321
Key Terms . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 322
Learning Goals . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 323
Critical Thinking Questions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 325
Review Questions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 325
Essay Questions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 326
Chapter 13 Peripheral Nervous
System and Reflex Activity . . . . 327
Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 328
Sensory Receptors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 328
General Senses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 330
Peripheral Nerves . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 332
Peripheral Motor Endings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 340
Somatic Nervous System . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 340
Imbalances of the PNS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 342
Effects of Aging on the PNS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 342
Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 343
Key Terms . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 343
Learning Goals . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 344
Critical Thinking Questions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 345
Review Questions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 345
Essay Questions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 346
Chapter 14 Autonomic Nervous System . . . . 347
Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 348
Comparison of the Somatic Nervous System
and Autonomic Nervous System . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 348
Major ANS Neurotransmitters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 350
Autonomic Nerve Fibers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 350
Divisions of the ANS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 352
Cholinergic Receptors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 355
Adrenergic Receptors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 356
Control of Autonomic Activity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 358
Somatic and Autonomic Function Overlap . . . . . . . 358
Higher Levels of Autonomic Control . . . . . . . . . . . . . 358
Imbalances of the ANS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 359
Effects of Aging on the ANS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 359
Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 360
Key Terms . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 360
Learning Goals . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 360
Chapter 10 Muscular System . . . . . . . . . . . . . 240
Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 241
Lever Systems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 244
Effects of Aging on the Muscular System . . . . . . . . . 267
Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 268
Key Terms . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 268
Learning Goals . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 268
Critical Thinking Questions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 269
Review Questions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 269
Essay Questions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 270
SECTION III Control and
Coordination 271
Chapter 11 Neural Tissue . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 272
Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 273
Divisions of the Nervous System . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 273
Cells of the Nervous System . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 274
Classification of Nerve Fibers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 279
Cell Membrane Potential . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 281
Nerve Impulses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 284
Synapses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 285
Processing of Impulses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 290
Effects of Aging on the Nervous
System . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 290
Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 291
Key Terms . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 292
Learning Goals . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 293
Critical Thinking Questions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 294
Review Questions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 294
Essay Questions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 295
Chapter 12 Central Nervous System . . . . . . . 296
Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 297
The Brain . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 297
Higher Brain Functions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 306
Brain Protection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 309
Spinal Cord . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 312
Spinal Neuronal Pathways . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 315
Imbalances of the CNS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 316
x Contents
Plasma . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 424
Formed Elements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 426
Hemostasis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 436
Blood Types and Transfusions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 441
Diagnostic Blood Tests . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 444
Effects of Aging on the Blood . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 444
Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 445
Key Terms . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 445
Learning Goals . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 446
Critical Thinking Questions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 447
Review Questions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 447
Essay Questions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 448
Chapter 18 The Heart . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 449
Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 450
Blood Circulation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 450
Structures of the Heart . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 450
Functions of the Heart . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 458
Effects of Aging on the Cardiovascular System . . . 466
Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 467
Key Terms . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 468
Learning Goals . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 468
Critical Thinking Questions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 470
Review Questions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 470
Essay Questions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 471
Chapter 19 Vascular System . . . . . . . . . . . . . 472
Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 473
Blood Vessel Structure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 474
Blood Circulation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 480
Blood Pressure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 481
Neural Controls of Blood Vessels . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 484
Blood Vessel Pathways and Divisions . . . . . . . . . . . . . 487
Effects of Aging on the Vascular
System . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 502
Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 503
Key Terms . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 504
Learning Goals . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 505
Critical Thinking Questions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 506
Review Questions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 506
Essay Questions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 507
Critical Thinking Questions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 362
Review Questions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 362
Essay Questions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 363
Chapter 15 Special Senses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 364
Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 365
Special Senses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 365
Effects of Aging on the Senses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 386
Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 387
Key Terms . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 387
Learning Goals . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 388
Critical Thinking Questions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 389
Review Questions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 389
Essay Questions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 390
Chapter 16 Endocrine System . . . . . . . . . . . . 391
Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 392
Endocrine System . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 392
Hormones . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 393
Control of Hormones . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 396
Pituitary Gland . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 397
Thyroid Gland . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 404
Parathyroid Glands . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 407
Adrenal Glands . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 408
Pineal Gland . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 412
Other Glands, Organs, or Tissues . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 412
Stress . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 415
Effects of Aging on the Endocrine System . . . . . . . 417
Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 417
Key Terms . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 418
Learning Goals . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 418
Critical Thinking Questions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 419
Review Questions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 419
Essay Questions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 420
SECTION IV Transport 421
Chapter 17 Blood………………….. 422
Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 423
Blood Functions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 423
Blood Components . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 423
Contents xi
Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 591
Key Terms . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 591
Learning Goals . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 591
Critical Thinking Questions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 592
Review Questions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 593
Essay Questions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 594
Chapter 23 Fluid, Electrolyte,
and Acid-Base Balance . . . . . . . . 595
Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 596
Body Fluid Distribution . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 596
Fluid Balance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 599
Fluid Intake and Output . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 600
Electrolyte Balance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 603
Acid-Base Balance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 606
Acid-Base Imbalances . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 608
Effects of Aging on Water, Electrolyte,
and Acid-Base Balance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 612
Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 613
Key Terms . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 614
Learning Goals . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 614
Critical Thinking Questions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 615
Review Questions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 615
Essay Questions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 616
Chapter 24 Digestive System . . . . . . . . . . . . . 617
Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 618
Alimentary Canal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 618
Functions of the Digestive System . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 620
Movement of Digestive Materials . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 621
Mouth . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 622
Salivary Glands . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 624
Teeth . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 625
Esophagus . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 628
Stomach . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 629
Small Intestine . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 634
Liver . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 638
Gallbladder . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 641
Pancreas . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 642
Large Intestine…………………………….. 644
Digestion and Absorption of Nutrients . . . . . . . . . . . 647
Chapter 20 Lymphatic System
and Immunity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 508
Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 509
Organization of the Lymphatic System . . . . . . . . . . . 509
Body Defenses and Fighting Infection . . . . . . . . . . . . 517
Effects of Aging on the Lymphatic
System and Immunity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 532
Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 532
Key Terms . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 533
Learning Goals . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 534
Critical Thinking Questions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 535
Review Questions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 535
Essay Questions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 536
SECTION V Environmental
Exchange 537
Chapter 21 Respiratory System . . . . . . . . . . . 538
Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 539
Respiratory System Functions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 539
Organization of the Respiratory System . . . . . . . . . . 539
Gas Exchange . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 556
Control of Breathing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 563
Effects of Aging on the Respiratory System . . . . . . . 565
Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 567
Key Terms . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 567
Learning Goals . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 568
Critical Thinking Questions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 569
Review Questions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 569
Essay Questions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 570
Chapter 22 Urinary System . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 571
Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 572
Anatomy of the Kidneys . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 572
Formation of Urine . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 577
Composition of Urine . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 585
Ureters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 587
Urinary Bladder . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 587
Urethra . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 589
Effects of Aging on the Urinary System . . . . . . . . . . . 590
xii Contents
Effects of Aging on the Digestive System……… 650
Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 651
Key Terms . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 651
Learning Goals . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 652
Critical Thinking Questions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 654
Review Questions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 654
Essay Questions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 655
SECTION VI Continuity of Life 657
Chapter 25 Reproductive System . . . . . . . . . 658
Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 659
Anatomy of the Male Reproductive System . . . . . . 659
Physiology of the Male Reproductive System . . . . . 664
Anatomy of the Female Reproductive System . . . . 669
Physiology of the Female Reproductive System . . . . . 675
Sexually Transmitted Infections . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 681
Effects of Aging on the Reproductive System . . . . 684
Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 684
Key Terms . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 685
Learning Goals . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 686
Critical Thinking Questions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 687
Review Questions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 688
Essay Questions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 689
Chapter 26 Pregnancy and
Development . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 690
Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 691
Fertilization . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 691
Prenatal Development . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 692
Parturition (Birth) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 704
Postnatal Development . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 707
Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 708
Key Terms . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 711
Learning Goals . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 711
Critical Thinking Questions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 712
Review Questions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 712
Essay Questions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 713
Chapter 27 Heredity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 714
Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 715
Genes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 715
Genetic Variation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 717
Patterns of Inheritance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 718
Environmental Factors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 722
Gender-Related Factors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 724
Genetic Screening . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 727
Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 728
Key Terms . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 728
Learning Goals . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 729
Critical Thinking Questions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 729
Review Questions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 730
Essay Questions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 731
Appendix A Common Abbreviations and Symbols . . .732
Appendix B Medical Terminology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .740
General Word Roots . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 740
General Prefixes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 741
General Suffixes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 741
General Combining Forms . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 741
Appendix C The Metric System . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .744
Appendix D Reference Laboratory
Values – Blood and Urine . . . . . . . . . . . . .746
Glossary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 750
Index . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .809

Anatomy and Physiology for Health Professionals 3rd Edition Preface

In 35 years of teaching anatomy and physiology, I have
utilized numerous books related to the subject. Some
were very high level while others were very low level,
and I could not find a “middle ground” book that really taught the subject to allied health students; surprising, given that this is a time when the field is growing
exponentially. Therefore, I undertook the writing of
this book for all allied health professionals. Anatomy
and physiology are two of the major core subjects for
almost all allied health professionals—they must understand the structures and normal functions of the
body in the simplest possible terms. This book strives
to make that possible.
Organization of This Text
This text is based on levels of organization within the
body and becomes more multifaceted as the student
incorporates the understanding of basic, then intermediate, and finally more complex subjects.
In total, the text consists of six units:
■ Unit I, Levels of Organization: This unit begins by
providing a general introduction to human anatomy and physiology along with the organization
levels through which the body is understood. It
then delves into the atomic, molecular, and chemical interactions on which life is based before
moving on to discussions of the cells and tissues
that comprise the body.
■ Unit II, Support and Movement: This unit focuses on
the body systems that support the body and allow for
a range of motion. It first considers the integumentary system, composed of the skin and its accessory
structures; these are the body’s first line of defense
against the environment. The text then approaches
the bones and joints that comprise the skeletal system before discussing the muscular system.
■ Unit III, Control and Coordination: This unit
tackles the critical components of the body that
control all body functions. The text considers the
all-important nervous system across four chapters
on neural tissue, the central nervous system, the
peripheral nervous system, and the senses. The
unit then ends with a chapter on the endocrine
system, which works along with the nervous system to regulate the functions of the human body
to maintain homeostasis.
■ Unit IV, Transport: This unit focuses on the cardiovascular and lymphatic systems, which keep
the body running. The first three chapters discuss
the major components of the cardiovascular system: the heart, blood, and blood vessels. The last
chapter in this unit focuses on the lymphatic system. Like the cardiovascular system, it transports
fluids through a network of vessels; without the
lymphatic system, fluid would accumulate in tissue spaces.
■ Unit V, Environmental Exchange: This unit considers the systems and processes that balance
what the body intakes with what it expels. The
unit first examines the respiratory system, which
intakes oxygen and removes carbon dioxide
from the body, before shifting focus to the urinary system, which eliminates wastes and maintains homeostatic regulation of the volume and
solute concentration of blood plasma. The text
then surveys fluid, electrolyte, and acid-base
balance before moving on to the digestive system, which in simplest terms supplies nutrients
for body cells.
■ Unit VI, Continuity of Life: In this unit, the focus
shifts to the male and female reproductive systems, which, while not essential to the survival of
an individual, are needed to ensure the continued
existence of the human species. The final chapter,
then, discusses pregnancy before delving into a
brief discussion of genetics.
In addition to the recurring features that guide the
student through each chapter (of which an overview is
given in the “How to Use This Book” section), the body
systems chapters contained in this text address the
effects of aging on each specific system, information
Preface
xiv Preface
▸ The Teaching and
Learning Package
The Teaching and Learning packages for instructors and
students encourage going beyond the content of the text
as well as driving home key concepts within the text.
Instructor Teaching Package
Qualified instructors can receive a full suite of extensive Instructor Resources, including:
■ Slides in PowerPoint format: Featuring more than
2,000 slides. At the bottom of each slide, Lecture
Notes have been added to assist instructors in better explanations of the concepts summarized on
the slides as well as to provide students in the form
of study notes.
■ Test Bank: Containing more than 1,000 questions
■ Instructor’s Manual: Including teaching strategies,
lecture outlines, discussion topics, and answers
to end of chapter questions as well as answers to
Case Studies
■ Image Bank: Supplying key figures from the text
■ Sample Syllabus: Showing how a course can be
structured around this text
■ Transition Guide: Providing guidance in switching
from the previous edition
Student Learning Package
The Student Learning Package includes:
■ Interactive eBook: Featuring more than 20
animations to help students conceptualize key
points of interest
■ Lab Exercises: Interactive or printable PDFs, which
students can use to visually apply the concepts learned
■ Practice Activities: To test student understanding
for each chapter
■ Case Studies: Available as interactive or printable PDFs to help students apply concepts to
real-world scenarios
■ Flash Cards: For self-study
that is especially critical at a time when the number of
older adults is on the rise.
New to This Edition
This Third Edition has been updated to take into account both advancements in medical knowledge in
the last several years as well as feedback from valued
users of the First and Second Editions.
For the Third Edition, the text was expanded from
24 to 27 chapters. Changes include:
■ NEW! Case Studies are included for instructors
and students as part of the Teaching and Learning
Package as interactive or printable PDFs to help
students apply concepts to real-world scenarios.
■ NEW! Chapter 7, Muscle Tissue: This chapter
focuses on the more basic concepts of the various
types of muscle tissues, including structures and
functions.
■ REVISED! Chapter 8, Muscular System: This
chapter focuses on the actual muscles of the
body and their functions. Lever systems is a
topic that has been added, and this chapter
includes discussion of skeletal, smooth, and
cardiac muscles.
■ NEW and REVISED! Chapter 14, Autonomic Nervous System: This chapter has been separated from
the second edition’s “Peripheral Nervous System”
chapter, and both these new chapters have been
greatly expanded.
■ NEW! Chapter 27, Heredity: This is a new chapter that explains how our genes and chromosomes
influence every facet of life. It focuses on various
types of inheritance and genetic screening.
■ NEW! There are four new Appendices in this edition. They include:
• Common Abbreviations
• Medical Terminology
• The Metric System
• Reference Values for Blood and Urine
New tables and figures have been added as
appropriate.

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