Basic Knowledge of Pharmacology, July 20, 2019

Basic Knowledge of Pharmacology, July 20, 2019This is the perfect pharmacology textbook for medical and pharmacy students. The book was developed on the +30-year experience of the author as pharmacology professor in the United States and Germany. The book discusses the most important drugs (400) in the context of relevant diseases.

Get ebook : $13.00 


Summary tables and schemes, MCQ exam questions, case studies and a list of drugs aid memorization of the material before an exam. All chapters are written in the same concise style and use a modern and precise pharmacological nomenclature.

After reading of the book, the student will be able to critically assess the proper use of the most important drugs and advise patients properly. The didactic concept of the book has been developed on the author’s own pharmacology courses for which he has received numerous teaching awards. The book takes advantage of the learning spiral, in which material is presented repeatedly from various angles.

This book is an adaptation for an international audience of the German textbook “Basiswissen Pharmakologie” (2018); ISBN: 978-3-662-56303-8.

Basic Knowledge of Pharmacology, July 20, 2019
by Roland Seifert (Author)
ISBN-10: 3030188981

ISBN-13: 978-3030188986


Basic Knowledge of Pharmacology, July 20, 2019 – Content

I General Principles
1 Introduction and Pharmacodynamics …………………………………………………………………….. 3
1.1 Drugs and Poisons………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 5
1.2 Drugs and Medicines……………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 5
1.3 International Nonproprietary Names (INN) Versus Brand Names ……………………………….. 5
1.4 Cultural Differences in Drug Use ……………………………………………………………………………………….. 7
1.5 Mechanism-Oriented Nomenclature of Drug Classes ……………………………………………………. 7
1.6 Drug Development ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 14
1.7 Pharmacological Targets: Receptors, Enzymes, Transporters,
and Ion Channels …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 15
1.8 Concentration-Response Relations: Agonists and Antagonists ………………………………….. 20
1.9 Therapeutic Index: Drug Safety ………………………………………………………………………………………… 23
1.10 Questions and Answers ………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 28
1.11 Exercises ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 29
Further Reading ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 29
2 Pharmacokinetics …………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 31
2.1 ADME Parameters: Pharmacotherapeutic Relevance ……………………………………………………. 32
2.2 Significance of the First-Pass Effect ………………………………………………………………………………….. 35
2.3 Significance of the Blood-Brain Barrier (BBB) …………………………………………………………………. 37
2.4 Significance of the Plasma Half-Life …………………………………………………………………………………. 40
2.5 Significance of CYP Inducers and CYP Inhibitors …………………………………………………………… 43
2.6 Question and Answers ………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 46
2.7 Exercises ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 47
Further Reading ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 47
3 Drug Allergy ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 49
3.1 Pathophysiological Background ……………………………………………………………………………………….. 50
3.2 Overview on Type I to Type IV Drug Allergies …………………………………………………………………. 52
3.3 Pathophysiology and Therapy of Type I Reaction
and Pseudoallergic Reactions ……………………………………………………………………………………………. 52
3.4 Pathophysiology and Prevention of Type IV Reactions ………………………………………………… 54
3.5 Question and Answers ………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 54
3.6 Exercises ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 56
Further Reading ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 56
4 Treatment of Drug Intoxications ………………………………………………………………………………. 57
4.1 General Aspects on Intoxications ……………………………………………………………………………………… 58
4.2 Primary Poison Elimination ……………………………………………………………………………………………….. 62
4.3 Secondary Poison Elimination …………………………………………………………………………………………… 62
4.4 Cardinal Symptoms, Treatment, and Antidotes for Important
Drug Intoxications ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 63
4.5 Question and Answers ………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 64
4.6 Exercises ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 65
Further Reading ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 65
X

Basic Knowledge of Pharmacology

II Pharmacology of Integrative Systems
5 Cholinergic and Adrenergic System ……………………………………………………………………….. 69
5.1 Physiological Background ………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 70
5.2 Acetylcholine Receptors and Adrenergic Receptors ……………………………………………………… 70
5.3 Pharmacological Modulation of Selected Organ Functions by
Acetylcholine Receptors and Adrenergic Receptors ……………………………………………………… 75
5.4 Pharmacological Modulation of the Cholinergic Synapse …………………………………………… 77
5.5 Pharmacological Modulation of the Noradrenergic Synapse ……………………………………… 79
5.6 Questions and Answers ………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 81
5.7 Exercises ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 81
Further Reading ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 81
6 Serotonergic System ……………………………………………………………………………………………………… 83
6.1 (Patho)physiological Background …………………………………………………………………………………….. 84
6.2 Pharmacological Modulation of Serotonin Receptors ………………………………………………….. 84
6.3 Pharmacological Modulation of the Serotonergic Synapse ………………………………………… 86
6.4 Pharmacological Treatment of Migraine …………………………………………………………………………. 87
6.5 Pharmacological Treatment of Vomiting …………………………………………………………………………. 89
6.6 Questions and Answers ………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 90
6.7 Exercises ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 91
Further Reading ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 91
7 Histaminergic System …………………………………………………………………………………………………… 93
7.1 (Patho)physiological Background and Histamine Receptors ………………………………………. 94
7.2 H1R Antagonists ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 96
7.3 Pharmacological Modulation of Gastric Proton Secretion …………………………………………… 97
7.4 Pharmacological Modulation of the Mast Cell ……………………………………………………………….. 98
7.5 Questions and Answers ………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 99
7.6 Exercises ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 100
Further Reading ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 100
8 Dopaminergic System …………………………………………………………………………………………………… 101
8.1 (Patho)physiological Background and Pharmacological
Interventions in the Dopaminergic System…………………………………………………………………….. 102
8.2 Pathophysiology and Pharmacotherapy of Parkinson’s Disease (PD) ………………………… 105
8.3 Pathophysiology and Pharmacotherapy of Attention Deficit
Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) …………………………………………………………………………………………. 108
8.4 Questions and Answers ………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 109
8.5 Exercises ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 110
Further Reading ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 110
9 NO-cGMP System …………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 111
9.1 (Patho)physiological Background …………………………………………………………………………………….. 112
9.2 NO Donors ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 114
9.3 PDE5 Inhibitors …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 114
9.4 sGC Stimulators and Activators ………………………………………………………………………………………… 116
9.5 Question and Answers ………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 116
9.6 Exercises ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 116
Further Reading ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 116

Basic Knowledge of Pharmacology – Contents

XI
10 Pain Pharmacology ………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 117
10.1 Pain Pathophysiology …………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 118
10.2 Pharmacological Interventions for Pain Therapy …………………………………………………………… 120
10.3 Non-MOR Agonists: COX Inhibitors, Paracetamol, and Metamizole …………………………… 125
10.4 MOR Agonists ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 128
10.5 Questions and Answers ………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 130
10.6 Exercises ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 130
Further Reading ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 131
11 Immunopharmacology …………………………………………………………………………………………………. 133
11.1 Pathophysiology of Autoimmune Diseases and Transplant Rejection:
Pharmacological Interventions …………………………………………………………………………………………. 134
11.2 Glucocorticoids (GCR Agonists) ………………………………………………………………………………………… 142
11.3 Inhibitors of Purine and Pyrimidine Metabolism and DNA Synthesis ……………………….. 143
11.4 Immunophilin Ligands ……………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 144
11.5 Biologicals ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 145
11.6 Questions and Answers ………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 146
11.7 Exercises ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 146
Further Reading ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 147
12 Pharmacology of the Kidney ……………………………………………………………………………………… 149
12.1 Pathophysiology of Chronic Kidney Disease (CKD) ……………………………………………………….. 150
12.2 Pharmacotherapeutic Principles and Specific Drugs for CKD Treatment ………………….. 159
12.3 Dose Adjustment in CKD ……………………………………………………………………………………………………. 160
12.4 ADRs of Drugs on Kidney Function…………………………………………………………………………………… 161
12.5 Questions and Answers ………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 162
12.6 Exercises ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 163
Further Reading ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 163

Basic Knowledge of Pharmacology – III Pharmacotherapy

13 Drugs for Treatment of Gastrointestinal Diseases ……………………………………………. 167
13.1 Pathophysiology and Pharmacotherapy of Gastroesophageal
Reflux Disease (GERD) …………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 168
13.2 Pathophysiology and Pharmacotherapy of Peptic Ulcer Disease (PUD) ……………………. 172
13.3 Pathophysiology and Pharmacotherapy of Diarrhea ……………………………………………………. 174
13.4 Pathophysiology and Pharmacotherapy of Constipation ……………………………………………. 175
13.5 Pathophysiology and Pharmacotherapy of Ulcerative Colitis (UC)
and Crohn’s Disease (CD) ……………………………………………………………………………………………………. 177
13.6 Questions and Answers ………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 179
13.7 Exercises ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 179
Further Reading ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 180
14 Drugs for Treatment of Respiratory Tract Diseases ………………………………………….. 181
14.1 Pathophysiology of Asthma ………………………………………………………………………………………………. 182
14.2 Pharmacotherapy of Asthma …………………………………………………………………………………………….. 186
14.3 Pathophysiology of Chronic-Obstructive Lung Disease (COPD) ………………………………… 188
14.4 Pharmacotherapy of COPD ………………………………………………………………………………………………… 189
14.5 Pathophysiology of Cystic Fibrosis (CF) …………………………………………………………………………… 190
14.6 Pharmacotherapy of CF ………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 191

Basic Knowledge of Pharmacology – Contents

XII
14.7 Questions and Answers ………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 192
14.8 Exercises ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 192
Further Reading ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 193
15 Drugs for Treatment of Hypertension ……………………………………………………………………. 195
15.1 Pathophysiology of Hypertension ……………………………………………………………………………………. 196
15.2 Vascular Smooth Muscle Cells as Targets for Antihypertensive Drugs ………………………. 199
15.3 Pharmacological Modulation of Blood Pressure via the RAAS ……………………………………. 200
15.4 Class A Antihypertensive Drugs ………………………………………………………………………………………… 201
15.5 Class B Antihypertensive Drugs ………………………………………………………………………………………… 202
15.6 Class C Antihypertensive Drugs ………………………………………………………………………………………… 202
15.7 Class D Antihypertensive Drugs ……………………………………………………………………………………….. 203
15.8 Drugs for Resistant Hypertension …………………………………………………………………………………….. 203
15.9 Practical Aspects of Hypertension Therapy…………………………………………………………………….. 204
15.10 Therapy of Hypertensive Emergencies ……………………………………………………………………………. 205
15.11 Questions and Answers ………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 205
15.12 Exercises ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 206
Further Reading ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 206
16 Drugs for Treatment of Chronic Heart Failure and Coronary
Heart Disease ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 207
16.1 Pathophysiology of Chronic Heart Failure (CHF) ……………………………………………………………. 208
16.2 Important Clinical Studies on CHF Pharmacotherapy…………………………………………………… 212
16.3 CHF Pharmacotherapy ………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 213
16.4 Pathophysiology of Coronary Heart Disease (CHD)
and Pharmacotherapeutic Concepts ……………………………………………………………………………….. 214
16.5 Questions and Answers ………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 216
16.6 Exercises ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 217
Further Reading ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 217
17 Drug-Induced Arrhythmias and Drugs for the Treatment
of Arrhythmias ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 219
17.1 Pathophysiology of Arrhythmias and Pharmacological Interventions ……………………… 220
17.2 Atrial Fibrillation (AF) ………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 221
17.3 Ventricular Tachycardia (VT) ……………………………………………………………………………………………… 224
17.4 Torsade-de-pointes Arrhythmia (TdP) ………………………………………………………………………………. 224
17.5 Questions and Answers ………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 226
17.6 Exercises ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 226
Further Reading ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 226
18 Drugs for Treatment of Thromboembolic Diseases ………………………………………….. 229
18.1 Hemostasis, Fibrinolysis, and Pharmacological Interventions
for Thromboembolic Diseases …………………………………………………………………………………………… 230
18.2 Heparins ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 234
18.3 Vitamin K Antagonists (VKAs)……………………………………………………………………………………………. 234
18.4 Direct-Acting Oral Anticoagulants (DOACs) ……………………………………………………………………. 235
18.5 Fibrinolytics ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 236
18.6 (Patho)physiological Regulation of Platelet Activation………………………………………………… 236
18.7 Platelet Aggregation Inhibitors (PAIs) ……………………………………………………………………………… 236
18.8 Questions and Answers ………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 238
18.9 Exercises ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 239
Further Reading ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 239

Basic Knowledge of Pharmacology – Contents

XIII
19 Drugs for Treatment of Diabetes Mellitus ……………………………………………………………. 241
19.1 Pathophysiology of Diabetes Mellitus (DM) and Pharmacotherapeutic
Concepts ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 242
19.2 Insulins ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 246
19.3 Metformin ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 247
19.4 PPAR-γ Agonists …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 248
19.5 Sulfonylureas ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 248
19.6 GLP-1R Agonists and DPP4 Inhibitors ……………………………………………………………………………… 248
19.7 SGLT-2 Inhibitors ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 249
19.8 α-Glucosidase Inhibitors …………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 249
19.9 Therapy of Hypoglycemia ………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 249
19.10 Therapy of Diabetic Coma ………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 249
19.11 Questions and Answers ………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 250
19.12 Exercises ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 250
Further Reading ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 251
20 Drugs for Treatment of Osteoporosis …………………………………………………………………….. 253
20.1 Pathophysiology of Osteoporosis and Pharmacological Interventions …………………….. 254
20.2 Vitamin D3 and Calcium ……………………………………………………………………………………………………… 255
20.3 Bisphosphonates …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 258
20.4 Selective Estrogen Receptor Modulators (SERMs) …………………………………………………………. 258
20.5 Denosumab………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 258
20.6 Teriparatide ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 259
20.7 Questions and Answers ………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 259
20.8 Exercises ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 259
Further Reading ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 260
21 Drugs for Treatment of Thyroid Gland Diseases ………………………………………………… 261
21.1 Physiology of the Thyroid Gland ………………………………………………………………………………………. 262
21.2 Pathophysiology and Pharmacotherapy of Hyperthyroidism …………………………………….. 263
21.3 Pathophysiology and Pharmacotherapy of Hypothyroidism ………………………………………. 267
21.4 Questions and Answers ………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 268
21.5 Exercises ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 268
Further Reading ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 269
22 Drugs for Treatment of Dyslipidemias …………………………………………………………………… 271
22.1 Pathogenesis of Atherosclerosis and Pharmacological Interventions ………………………. 272
22.2 HMG-CoA Reductase Inhibitors ………………………………………………………………………………………… 275
22.3 Inhibitors of Cholesterol Absorption ……………………………………………………………………………….. 276
22.4 Bile Acid Sequestrants ………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 276
22.5 PPAR-α Agonists …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 277
22.6 PCSK9 Inhibitors ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 277
22.7 Questions and Answers ………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 277
22.8 Exercises ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 278
Further Reading ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 278
23 Drugs for Treatment of Gout ……………………………………………………………………………………… 279
23.1 Pathophysiology of Gout ……………………………………………………………………………………………………. 280
23.2 Drugs for Treatment of Acute Gout …………………………………………………………………………………. 283
23.3 Drugs for Treatment of Chronic Gout ………………………………………………………………………………. 284

Basic Knowledge of Pharmacology – Contents

XIV
23.4 Questions and Answers ………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 285
23.5 Exercises ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 285
Further Reading ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 286
24 Sex Hormones: Hormonal Contraception and Hormone
Replacement Therapy……………………………………………………………………………………………………. 287
24.1 Physiology of Sex Hormones …………………………………………………………………………………………….. 288
24.2 Pharmacological Interventions …………………………………………………………………………………………. 290
24.3 Hormonal Contraceptives ………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 294
24.4 Hormone Replacement Therapy (HRT) for Women ……………………………………………………….. 298
24.5 Questions and Answers ………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 299
24.6 Exercises ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 300
Further Reading ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 301
25 Neuron Inhibitors with Pleiotropic Effects and Allosteric
GABAAR Modulators ………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 303
25.1 Neuropsychiatric Diseases with Neuronal Imbalance: Neuron Inhibitors
with Pleiotropic Effects (NIPEs) as Pharmacological Strategy ……………………………………… 304
25.2 Epilepsies as Paradigm for Diseases with Neuronal Imbalance
and Treated with NIPEs ……………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 305
25.3 Selected NIPEs ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 306
25.4 Allosteric GABAAR Modulators ………………………………………………………………………………………….. 310
25.5 Questions and Answers ………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 314
25.6 Exercises ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 314
Further Reading ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 315
26 Local Anesthetics ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 317
26.1 Mechanism of Action of Local Anesthetics ……………………………………………………………………… 318
26.2 Important Local Anesthetics, Applications, and ADRs ………………………………………………….. 319
26.3 Vasoconstrictors in Local Anesthesia……………………………………………………………………………….. 321
26.4 Questions and Answers ………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 321
26.5 Exercises ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 322
Further Reading ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 322
27 Inhalation and Injection Anesthetics……………………………………………………………………… 323
27.1 Principles of Inhalation Anesthesia ………………………………………………………………………………….. 324
27.2 Important Inhalation Anesthetics …………………………………………………………………………………….. 326
27.3 Important Injection Anesthetics……………………………………………………………………………………….. 328
27.4 Questions and Answers ………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 329
27.5 Exercises ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 329
Further Reading ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 330
28 Drugs for Treatment of Depression and Bipolar Disorder …………………………….. 331
28.1 Pathophysiology of Depression and Pharmacotherapeutic Concepts ………………………. 332
28.2 NSMRIs ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 338
28.3 SSRIs ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 339
28.4 SSNRIs ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 339
28.5 α2AR Antagonists ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 339
28.6 Monoamine Oxidase Inhibitors (MAOIs) …………………………………………………………………………. 340
28.7 Pathophysiology of Bipolar Disorder ……………………………………………………………………………….. 340
28.8 Lithium and NIPEs ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 340
Contents
XV
28.9 Nontraditional Indications of NE/5-HT Enhancers and Lithium ………………………………….. 342
28.10 Treatment of Depression with p-mGPCR Antagonists ………………………………………………….. 342
28.11 Questions and Answers ………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 343
28.12 Exercises ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 344
Further Reading ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 344
29 Drugs for Treatment of Schizophrenia …………………………………………………………………… 345
29.1 Pathophysiology of Schizophrenia and Pharmacotherapeutic Concepts …………………. 346
29.2 D2R-mGPCR Antagonists…………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 350
29.3 p-mGPCR Antagonists ………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 352
29.4 Nontraditional Indications of mGPCR Antagonists ……………………………………………………….. 353
29.5 Treatment of Schizophrenia with NE/5-HT Enhancers, Lithium, and NIPEs ………………. 354
29.6 Questions and Answers ………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 354
29.7 Exercises ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 355
Further Reading ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 355
30 Drugs for the Treatment of Alzheimer’s Disease ……………………………………………….. 357
30.1 Pathophysiology of Dementias and Pharmacotherapeutic Concepts ……………………….. 358
30.2 Currently Used Drugs ………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 360
30.3 Pharmacological Strategies to Reduce Tau Aggregates ……………………………………………….. 361
30.4 Pharmacological Strategies to Reduce Amyloid Plaques……………………………………………… 361
30.5 Questions and Answers ………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 362
30.6 Exercises ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 362
Further Reading ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 363
31 Drugs for the Treatment of Glaucoma and Age-Related
Macular Degeneration ………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 365
31.1 Pathophysiology of Glaucoma ………………………………………………………………………………………….. 366
31.2 Pharmacotherapy of Glaucoma ………………………………………………………………………………………… 367
31.3 Pathophysiology of Age-Related Macular Degeneration (AMD) ……………………………….. 370
31.4 Pharmacotherapy of AMD ………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 370
31.5 Questions and Answers ………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 372
31.6 Exercises ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 372
Further Reading ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 373
32 Drugs for the Treatment of Malignant Tumor Diseases ………………………………….. 375
32.1 Pathophysiology of Malignant Tumors and Pharmacological Interventions ……………. 377
32.2 Principles of Tumor Therapy ………………………………………………………………………………………………. 383
32.3 Classic Cytostatics ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 384
32.4 Targeted Therapeutics ………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 386
32.5 Questions and Answers ………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 388
32.6 Exercises ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 388
Further Reading ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 389
33 Drugs for the Treatment of Bacterial Infections ………………………………………………… 391
33.1 Principles of Antibacterial Chemotherapy ……………………………………………………………………… 392
33.2 Important Bacterial Infections and Their Pharmacotherapy ……………………………………….. 402
33.3 Antibiotics Inhibiting Cell Wall Biosynthesis ………………………………………………………………….. 403
33.4 Antibiotics Inhibiting DNA Replication ……………………………………………………………………………. 404
33.5 Antibiotics Inhibiting Protein Biosynthesis …………………………………………………………………….. 405
33.6 Antibiotics Inhibiting Dihydrofolate Reductase …………………………………………………………….. 406
Contents
XVI
33.7 Anti-TB Drugs ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 407
33.8 Questions and Answers ………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 408
33.9 Exercises ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 408
Further Reading ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 408
34 Drugs for the Treatment of Viral Infections …………………………………………………………. 411
34.1 Overview of Viral Infections and Pharmacological Interventions ………………………………. 412
34.2 Virustatics for Treatment of Herpes Virus Infections …………………………………………………….. 417
34.3 Virustatics for Treatment of HIV Infections ……………………………………………………………………… 418
34.4 Virustatics for Treatment of Hepatitis C …………………………………………………………………………… 419
34.5 Questions and Answers ………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 420
34.6 Exercises ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 420
Further Reading ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 421
35 Drugs for the Treatment of Fungal Infections …………………………………………………….. 423
35.1 Overview of Important Fungal Infections and Their Pharmacotherapy ……………………. 424
35.2 Azole Antimycotics ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 429
35.3 Polyene Antimycotics ………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 429
35.4 Echinocandins ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 430
35.5 Questions and Answers ………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 430
35.6 Exercises ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 431
Further Reading ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 431
36 Integrative Case Studies ………………………………………………………………………………………………. 433
36.1 Lessons from History: Arrhythmias After Tropical Fruit Party ……………………………………… 435
36.2 Questions and Answers ………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 435
36.3 Generalized Pruritus and Lack of Antibiotic Efficacy
in Uncomplicated Cystitis …………………………………………………………………………………………………… 436
36.4 Questions and Answers ………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 436
36.5 Pain Despite Therapy with Analgesics ……………………………………………………………………………… 436
36.6 Questions and Answers ………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 437
36.7 Toddler with GI Infection and Spasmodic Torticollis in the Emergency Room …………. 437
36.8 Questions and Answers ………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 438
36.9 Critical Assessment of a Medication Plan………………………………………………………………………… 438
36.10 Questions and Answers ………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 438
36.11 Ballerina with Nervousness and Hypertension ………………………………………………………………. 439
36.12 Questions and Answers ………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 439
36.13 Gestational DM Due to Fenoterol Infusion? ……………………………………………………………………. 440
36.14 Questions and Answers ………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 440
36.15 Meaningful Long-Term Therapy with Pantoprazole?…………………………………………………….. 440
36.16 Questions and Answers ………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 441
36.17 Nervous Breakdown After Nocturnal Computer Sessions ……………………………………………. 441
36.18 Questions and Answers ………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 442
36.19 Sufficient Analgesic Therapy for Metastasizing Mammary Carcinoma? ……………………. 442
36.20 Questions and Answers ………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 442
Further Reading ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 443
Contents
XVII
37 The “100 List” of Drugs …………………………………………………………………………………………………. 445
37.1 How the “100 List” Was Compiled……………………………………………………………………………………… 447
37.2 Important Indications Covered by the “100 List” …………………………………………………………… 447
37.3 Unique Drugs in the “100 List” and Structurally Related Drugs ………………………………….. 460
37.4 Clinical Application of the “100 List”………………………………………………………………………………… 461
37.5 Important Medical Fields Covered by the “100 List” ……………………………………………………… 461
37.6 Risk of Abuse of the “100 List” …………………………………………………………………………………………… 462
37.7 Cultural Differences in the Availability and Use of the “100 List” ……………………………….. 463
37.8 Pricing of the “100 List” ………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 464
37.9 20 Drugs from the “100 List” that Every Physician Should Prescribe………………………….. 465
37.10 Why Certain Commonly Prescribed Drugs Are Not in the “100 List” ………………………….. 466
37.11 Questions and Answers ………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 467
37.12 Exercises ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 467
Further Reading ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 468
Supplementary Information
List of Generic Drugs …………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 470
Index ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 485


Basic Knowledge of Pharmacology, July 20, 2019 – General Principles

Contents
Chapter 1 Introduction and Pharmacodynamics – 3
Chapter 2 Pharmacokinetics – 31
Chapter 3 Drug Allergy – 49
Chapter 4 Treatment of Drug Intoxications – 57…..

Leave a Reply

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *