Brain Imaging with MRI and CT: An Image Pattern Approach 1st Edition

Brain Imaging with MRI and CT: An Image Pattern Approach 1st EditionMost imaging books are ordered according to underlying etiology. However, in real life clinical practice, radiologists usually make their differential diagnoses according to the image patterns, as the etiology is often unknown.

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Brain Imaging with CT and MRI presents over 180 disease processes and normal variants, grouping entities by these basic patterns to accentuate differential diagnostic features. High quality CT and MRI scans show multiple typical and distinguishing images for each entity.

Common and unusual clinical scenarios are described, including dilated perivascular spaces, capillary teleangiectasia, Susac’s syndrome and desmoplastic infantile ganglioglioma. Both basic and advanced imaging techniques are used, reflecting the reality of clinical practice.

This image-focused book emphasises the most pertinent clinical information relevant to the diagnostic process. Trainee and practising radiologists will find Brain Imaging with CT and MRI an invaluable and clinically relevant tool for learning and teaching.

Brain Imaging with MRI and CT: An Image Pattern Approach (Cambridge Medicine) 1st Edition
by Rumboldt MD, Zoran (Editor), Mauricio Castillo (Editor), Benjamin Huang (Editor), Andrea Rossi (Editor)
ISBN-13: 978-0521119443
ISBN-10: 0521119448

Brain Imaging with MRI and CT: An Image Pattern Approach 1st Edition – Content

List of contributors xi
List of abbreviations xii
Preface xv
Section 1 Bilateral Predominantly
Symmetric Abnormalities
Cases
1 Hepatic Encephalopathy 2
Maria Vittoria Spampinato
2 Neurofibromatosis Type 1 – UBOs 4
Andrea Rossi
3 Carbon Monoxide Intoxication 6
Benjamin Huang
4 Pantothenate Kinase-Associated Neurodegeneration
(Hallervorden–Spatz Syndrome) 8
Andrea Rossi
5 Methanol Intoxication 10
Benjamin Huang
6 Wilson Disease 12
Benjamin Huang
7 Hypoxic Ischemic Encephalopathy in Term Neonates 14
Mariasavina Severino
8 Cryptococcosis 16
Benjamin Huang
9 Gangliosidosis GM2 18
Mariasavina Severino
10 Leigh Disease 20
Mariasavina Severino
11 Deep Cerebral Vein Thrombosis (DCVT) 22
Benjamin Huang
12 Creutzfeldt–Jakob Disease (CJD) 24
Benjamin Huang
13 Global Cerebral Anoxia in Mature Brain 26
Maria Vittoria Spampinato and Zoran Rumboldt
14 Wernicke Encephalopathy 28
Giulio Zuccoli
15 Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis 30
Mauricio Castillo
16 Glutaric Aciduria Type 1 32
Mariasavina Severino
17 Subcortical Band Heterotopia 34
Andrea Rossi
18 Bilateral Perisylvian Polymicrogyria (BPP) 36
Mariasavina Severino
19 Lissencephaly 38
Mariasavina Severino
20 Herpes Simplex Encephalitis 40
Mauricio Castillo and Zoran Rumboldt
21 Limbic Encephalitis 42
Mauricio Castillo
22 CADASIL (Cerebral Autosomal Dominant
Arteriopathy with Subcortical Infarcts and
Leukoencephalopathy) 44
Zoran Rumboldt
23 Megalencephalic Leukoencephalopathy with
Subcortical Cysts 46
Mariasavina Severino
24 Canavan Disease 48
Andrea Rossi and Chen Hoffman
25 HIV Encephalopathy 50
Zoran Rumboldt and Mauricio Castillo
26 Radiation- and Chemotherapy-Induced
Leukoencephalopathy 52
Maria Vittoria Spampinato
27 Leukoaraiosis (Microangiopathy) 54
Alessandro Cianfoni
28 Periventricular Edema in Acute
Hydrocephalus 56
Alessandro Cianfoni
29 Hypoglycemia 58
Benjamin Huang
30 X-Linked Adrenoleukodystrophy (X-ALD) 60
Mariasavina Severino
31 Periventricular Leukomalacia (PVL) 62
Alessandro Cianfoni
32 Posterior Reversible Encephalopathy
Syndrome (PRES, Hypertensive
Encephalopathy) 64
Maria Vittoria Spampinato and Zoran Rumboldt
33 Alexander Disease 66
Mariasavina Severino
34 Metachromatic Leukodystrophy 68
Andrea Rossi and Zoran Rumboldt
35 Neurodegenerative Langerhans Cell Histiocytosis
(ND-LCH) 70
Zoran Rumboldt and Andrea Rossi
36 Remote Cerebellar Hemorrhage 72
Maria Gisele Matheus
37 Spontaneous Intracranial Hypotension 74
Maria Vittoria Spampinato
Other Relevant Cases
59 Multiple System Atrophy (MSA) 120
Zoran Rumboldt and Mauricio Castillo
60 Maple Syrup Urine Disease (MSUD) 122
Andrea Rossi
66 Osmotic Myelinolysis 134
Mauricio Castillo
v
87 Benign External Hydrocephalus 178
Maria Vittoria Spampinato
88 Normal Pressure Hydrocephalus 180
Alessandro Cianfoni
89 Alzheimer Disease 182
Maria Vittoria Spampinato
90 Frontotemporal Lobar Degeneration 184
Maria Vittoria Spampinato
91 Huntington Disease 186
Zoran Rumboldt and Benjamin Huang
184 Congenital Cytomegalovirus Infection 380
Zoran Rumboldt and Chen Hoffman
Section 2 Sellar, Perisellar and
Midline Lesions
Cases
38 Rathke’s Cleft Cyst 78
Zoran Rumboldt
39 Pituitary Microadenoma 80
Matthew Omojola and Zoran Rumboldt
40 Lymphocytic Hypophysitis 82
Zoran Rumboldt and Benjamin Huang
41 Pituitary Macroadenoma 84
Matthew Omojola and Zoran Rumboldt
42 Ectopic Posterior Pituitary Lobe 86
Mauricio Castillo
43 Langerhans Cell Histiocytosis 88
Zoran Rumboldt and Andrea Rossi
44 Craniopharyngioma 90
Maria Vittoria Spampinato
45 Hypothalamic Hamartoma 92
Andrea Rossi
46 Optic Glioma 94
Maria Gisele Matheus
47 Perisellar Meningioma 96
Alessandro Cianfoni
48 Hemangioma of the Cavernous Sinus 98
Zoran Rumboldt
49 Tolosa–Hunt Syndrome 100
Benjamin Huang
50 Carotid-Cavernous Sinus Fistula 102
Zoran Rumboldt
51 Perisellar Aneurysm 104
Alessandro Cianfoni
52 Chordoma 106
Alessandro Cianfoni and Zoran Rumboldt
53 Chondrosarcoma 108
Zoran Rumboldt
54 Colloid Cyst 110
Alessandro Cianfoni
55 Aqueductal Stenosis 112
Andrea Rossi
56 Progressive Supranuclear Palsy (PSP) 114
Alessandro Cianfoni and Zoran Rumboldt
57 Joubert Syndrome 116
Maria Vittoria Spampinato
58 Rhombencephalosynapsis 118
Chen Hoffman
59 Multiple System Atrophy (MSA) 120
Zoran Rumboldt and Mauricio Castillo
60 Maple Syrup Urine Disease (MSUD) 122
Andrea Rossi
61 Chiari 2 Malformation 124
Mauricio Castillo
62 Tectal Glioma 126
Maria Gisele Matheus
63 Brainstem Glioma 128
Donna Roberts
64 Duret Hemorrhage 130
Mauricio Castillo
65 Hypertrophic Olivary Degeneration 132
Zoran Rumboldt and Benjamin Huang
66 Osmotic Myelinolysis 134
Mauricio Castillo
67 Germinoma 136
Mauricio Castillo and Zoran Rumboldt
68 Pineoblastoma 138
Mauricio Castillo and Zoran Rumboldt
69 Pineal Cyst 140
Mauricio Castillo
70 Vein of Galen Aneurysmal Malformation (VGAM) 142
Andrea Rossi
71 Corpus Callosum Dysgenesis 144
Maria Gisele Matheus
72 Septo-Optic Dysplasia 146
Mariasavina Severino
73 Holoprosencephaly 148
Andrea Rossi
74 Atretic Parietal Encephalocele 150
Maria Gisele Matheus
75 Dermoid Cyst 152
Benjamin Huang
76 Lipoma 154
Benjamin Huang
Other Relevant Cases
14 Wernicke Encephalopathy 28
Giulio Zuccoli
93 Dandy–Walker Malformation 190
Andrea Rossi
113 Susac Syndrome 232
Mauricio Castillo
CONTENTS
vi
Section 3 Parenchymal Defects or
Abnormal Volume
Cases
77 Hippocampal Sclerosis 158
Alessandro Cianfoni
78 Wallerian Degeneration 160
Alessandro Cianfoni
79 Rasmussen Encephalitis 162
Chen Hoffman and Zoran Rumboldt
80 Chronic Infarct 164
Alessandro Cianfoni
81 Post-Traumatic Atrophy 166
Benjamin Huang
82 Postoperative Defects 168
Benjamin Huang
83 Porencephalic Cyst 170
Benjamin Huang
84 Schizencephaly 172
Alessandro Cianfoni
85 Hemimegalencephaly 174
Andrea Rossi
86 Sturge–Weber Syndrome 176
Maria Gisele Matheus
87 Benign External Hydrocephalus 178
Maria Vittoria Spampinato
88 Normal Pressure Hydrocephalus 180
Alessandro Cianfoni
89 Alzheimer Disease 182
Maria Vittoria Spampinato
90 Frontotemporal Lobar Degeneration 184
Maria Vittoria Spampinato
91 Huntington Disease 186
Zoran Rumboldt and Benjamin Huang
92 Congenital Muscular Dystrophies 188
Andrea Rossi
93 Dandy–Walker Malformation 190
Andrea Rossi
94 Microcephaly 192
Mariasavina Severino
95 Hydranencephaly 194
Andrea Rossi
96 Acquired Intracranial Herniations 196
Benjamin Huang
Other Relevant Cases
16 Glutaric Aciduria Type 1 32
Mariasavina Severino
31 Periventricular Leukomalacia (PVL) 62
Alessandro Cianfoni
56 Progressive Supranuclear Palsy (PSP) 114
Alessandro Cianfoni and Zoran Rumboldt
57 Joubert Syndrome 116
Maria Vittoria Spampinato
58 Rhombencephalosynapsis 118
Chen Hoffman
59 Multiple System Atrophy (MSA) 120
Zoran Rumboldt and Mauricio Castillo
61 Chiari 2 Malformation 124
Mauricio Castillo
Section 4 Abnormalities Without
Significant Mass Effect
Cases
A. Primarily Non-Enhancing
97 Dural Venous Sinus Thrombosis 200
Giulio Zuccoli
98 Dural Arteriovenous Fistula 202
Matthew Omojola and Zoran Rumboldt
99 Subarachnoid Hemorrhage 204
Matthew Omojola
100 Laminar Necrosis 206
Matthew Omojola
101 Neurocutaneous Melanosis 208
Majda Thurnher
102 Superficial Siderosis 210
Mauricio Castillo
103 Polymicrogyria 212
Maria Vittoria Spampinato
104 Seizure-Related Changes (Peri-Ictal MRI
Abnormalities) 214
Mauricio Castillo
105 Embolic Infarcts 216
Benjamin Huang
106 Focal Cortical Dysplasia 218
Zoran Rumboldt and Maria Gisele Matheus
107 Tuberous Sclerosis Complex 220
Maria Gisele Matheus
108 Dysembroplastic Neuroepithelial Tumor
(DNT, DNET) 222
Giovanni Morana
109 Nonketotic Hyperglycemia With Hemichorea–
Hemiballismus 224
Zoran Rumboldt
110 Hyperdensity Following Endovascular
Intervention 226
Zoran Rumboldt and Benjamin Huang
111 Early (Hyperacute) Infarct 228
Benjamin Huang
112 Acute Disseminated Encephalomyelitis (ADEM) 230
Benjamin Huang
113 Susac Syndrome 232
Mauricio Castillo
114 Diffuse Axonal Injury 234
Majda Thurnher
115 Multiple Sclerosis 236
Matthew Omojola and Zoran Rumboldt
116 Progressive Multifocal Leukoencephalopathy
(PML) 238
Zoran Rumboldt
CONTENTS
vii
117 Nodular Heterotopia 240
Maria Gisele Matheus
Other Relevant Cases
19 Lissencephaly 38
Mariasavina Severino
20 Herpes Simplex Encephalitis 40
Mauricio Castillo and Zoran Rumboldt
21 Limbic Encephalitis 42
Mauricio Castillo
B. Primarily Enhancing
118 Neurosarcoidosis 242
Zoran Rumboldt
119 Meningeal Carcinomatosis 244
Alessandro Cianfoni
120 Meningitis (Infectious) 246
Mauricio Castillo
121 Perineural Tumor Spread 248
Zoran Rumboldt
122 Moyamoya 250
Maria Vittoria Spampinato
123 Central Nervous System Vasculitis 252
Giulio Zuccoli
124 Subacute Infarct 254
Benjamin Huang and Zoran Rumboldt
125 Active Multiple Sclerosis 256
Mariasavina Severino
126 Capillary Telangiectasia 258
Alessandro Cianfoni
127 Developmental Venous Anomaly 260
Giulio Zuccoli
128 Immune Reconstitution Inflammatory
Syndrome (IRIS) 262
Zoran Rumboldt
129 Ventriculitis 264
Zoran Rumboldt and Majda Thurnher
Other Relevant Cases
30 X-Linked Adrenoleukodystrophy (X-ALD) 60
Mariasavina Severino
33 Alexander Disease 66
Mariasavina Severino
37 Spontaneous Intracranial Hypotension 74
Maria Vittoria Spampinato
86 Sturge–Weber Syndrome 176
Maria Gisele Matheus
Section 5 Primarily Extra-Axial Focal
Space-Occupying Lesions
Cases
130 Arachnoid Granulations 268
Zoran Rumboldt
131 Leptomeningeal Cyst 270
Benjamin Huang
132 Epidural Hematoma 272
Benjamin Huang
133 Subdural Hematoma 274
Donna Roberts
134 Empyema 276
Mauricio Castillo
135 Secondary (Systemic) Lymphoma 278
Zoran Rumboldt
136 Idiopathic Hypertrophic Pachymeningitis 280
Zoran Rumboldt
137 Olfactory Neuroblastoma 282
Zoran Rumboldt
138 Meningioma 284
Alessandro Cianfoni and Zoran Rumboldt
139 Desmoplastic Infantile Ganglioglioma 286
Giovanni Morana
140 Hemangiopericytoma 288
Zoran Rumboldt
141 Schwannoma 290
Giulio Zuccoli
142 Arachnoid Cyst 292
Maria Gisele Matheus
143 Epidermoid 294
Maria Gisele Matheus
144 Aneurysm 296
Zoran Rumboldt
145 Racemose Neurocysticercosis 298
Zoran Rumboldt and Mauricio Castillo
146 Ependymal Cyst 300
Giovanni Morana
147 Choroid Plexus Cyst 302
Benjamin Huang
148 Choroid Plexus Papilloma 304
Andrea Rossi
149 Intraventricular Meningioma 306
Zoran Rumboldt
150 Central Neurocytoma 308
Mauricio Castillo
151 Ventricular Diverticula 310
Zoran Rumboldt
Other Relevant Cases
54 Colloid Cyst 110
Alessandro Cianfoni
67 Germinoma 136
Mauricio Castillo and Zoran Rumboldt
68 Pineoblastoma 138
Mauricio Castillo and Zoran Rumboldt
75 Dermoid Cyst 152
Benjamin Huang
76 Lipoma 154
Benjamin Huang
93 Dandy–Walker Malformation 190
Andrea Rossi
CONTENTS
viii
Section 6 Primarily Intra-Axial Masses
Cases
A. Typically Without Blood Products
152 Acute Infarction 314
Majda Thurnher
153 Glioblastoma Multiforme 316
Zoran Rumboldt and Majda Thurnher
154 Therapy-Induced Cerebral Necrosis (Radiation
Necrosis) 318
Maria Vittoria Spampinato and Zoran Rumboldt
155 Non-Hemorrhagic Metastases 320
Maria Gisele Matheus
156 Cerebral Abscess 322
Maria Gisele Matheus
157 Cerebral Toxoplasmosis 324
Benjamin Huang
158 Primary CNS Lymphoma 326
Alessandro Cianfoni and Zoran Rumboldt
159 Tumefactive Demyelinating Lesion 328
Zoran Rumboldt
160 Tuberculoma 330
Mauricio Castillo
161 Oligodendroglioma 332
Maria Vittoria Spampinato
162 Low-Grade Diffuse Astrocytoma 334
Donna Roberts and Benjamin Huang
163 Gliomatosis Cerebri 336
Mauricio Castillo
164 Mitochondrial Myopathy, Encephalopathy,
Lactic Acidosis, and Stroke-Like Episodes
(MELAS) 338
Mauricio Castillo
165 Pleomorphic Xanthoastrocytoma (PXA) 340
Mauricio Castillo
166 Ganglioglioma 342
Giovanni Morana and Mauricio Castillo
167 Neurocysticercosis – Parenchymal 344
Matthew Omojola
168 Dilated Perivascular Spaces 346
Giovanni Morana
169 Neuroepithelial Cyst 348
Zoran Rumboldt and Benjamin Huang
170 Subependymal Giant Cell Astrocytoma (SEGA) 350
Andrea Rossi
171 Subependymoma 352
Zoran Rumboldt
172 Ependymoma 354
Donna Roberts
173 Pilocytic Astrocytoma 356
Donna Roberts
174 Medulloblastoma 358
Donna Roberts and Zoran Rumboldt
175 Hemangioblastoma 360
Zoran Rumboldt and Maria Gisele Matheus
176 Lhermitte–Duclos (Cowden Syndrome) 362
Mauricio Castillo
Other Relevant Cases
62 Tectal Glioma 126
Maria Gisele Matheus
63 Brainstem Glioma 128
Donna Roberts
65 Hypertrophic Olivary Degeneration 132
Zoran Rumboldt and Benjamin Huang
B. Typically With Blood Products
177 Hypertensive Hematoma 364
Zoran Rumboldt
178 Amyloid Hemorrhage – Cerebral Amyloid
Angiopathy 366
Zoran Rumboldt
179 Cortical Contusion 368
Benjamin Huang
180 Hemorrhagic Neoplasms 370
Benjamin Huang
181 Hemorrhagic Venous Thrombosis 372
Mauricio Castillo and Benjamin Huang
182 Arteriovenous Malformation 374
Zoran Rumboldt
183 Cavernous Angioma (Cavernoma) 376
Giulio Zuccoli and Zoran Rumboldt
Section 7 Intracranial Calcifications
Cases
184 Congenital Cytomegalovirus Infection 380
Zoran Rumboldt and Chen Hoffman
185 Congenital Toxoplasmosis 382
Chen Hoffman
186 Aicardi–Goutie`res Syndrome 384
Andrea Rossi
187 Physiologic Basal Ganglia Calcifications 386
Benjamin Huang
188 Hyperparathyroidism 388
Benjamin Huang
189 Meningioangiomatosis 390
Giovanni Morana
190 Vascular Wall Calcification 392
Benjamin Huang
191 Dystrophic Calcifications 394
Benjamin Huang
192 Calcified Aneurysms 396
Zoran Rumboldt
193 Vascular Malformations 396
Zoran Rumboldt
194 Cysticercosis 398
Matthew Omojola
195 Calcified Metastases 398
Benjamin Huang
CONTENTS
ix
196 Ganglioglioma 400
Mauricio Castillo
197 Oligodendroglioma 400
Zoran Rumboldt
198 Cortical Tubers in Tuberous Sclerosis 402
Zoran Rumboldt
199 Subependymal Nodules in Tuberous
Sclerosis 402
Zoran Rumboldt
200 Ependymoma 404
Zoran Rumboldt
201 Lipoma With Calcification 404
Benjamin Huang
202 Craniopharyngioma 406
Maria Vittoria Spampinato
203 Meningioma 406
Alessandro Cianfoni
204 Teflon Granuloma 408
Zoran Rumboldt
Index 410


Brain Imaging with MRI and CT: An Image Pattern Approach 1st Edition – SECTION 1

Bilateral Predominantly Symmetric Abnormalities
Cases
1 Hepatic Encephalopathy
Maria Vittoria Spampinato
2 Neurofibromatosis Type 1 – UBOs
Andrea Rossi
3 Carbon Monoxide Intoxication
Benjamin Huang
4 Pantothenate Kinase-Associated Neurodegeneration
(Hallervorden–Spatz Syndrome)
Andrea Rossi
5 Methanol Intoxication
Benjamin Huang
6 Wilson Disease
Benjamin Huang
7 Hypoxic Ischemic Encephalopathy in Term Neonates
Mariasavina Severino
8 Cryptococcosis
Benjamin Huang
9 Gangliosidosis GM2
Mariasavina Severino
10 Leigh Disease
Mariasavina Severino
11 Deep Cerebral Vein Thrombosis (DCVT)
Benjamin Huang
12 Creutzfeldt–Jakob Disease (CJD)
Benjamin Huang
13 Global Cerebral Anoxia in Mature Brain
Maria Vittoria Spampinato and Zoran Rumboldt
14 Wernicke Encephalopathy
Giulio Zuccoli
15 Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis
Mauricio Castillo
16 Glutaric Aciduria Type 1
Mariasavina Severino
17 Subcortical Band Heterotopia
Andrea Rossi
18 Bilateral Perisylvian Polymicrogyria (BPP)
Mariasavina Severino
19 Lissencephaly
Mariasavina Severino
20 Herpes Simplex Encephalitis
Mauricio Castillo and Zoran Rumboldt
21 Limbic Encephalitis
Mauricio Castillo
22 CADASIL (Cerebral Autosomal Dominant Arteriopathy with
Subcortical Infarcts and Leukoencephalopathy)
Zoran Rumboldt
23 Megalencephalic Leukoencephalopathy with Subcortical Cysts
Mariasavina Severino
24 Canavan Disease
Andrea Rossi and Chen Hoffman
25 HIV Encephalopathy
Zoran Rumboldt and Mauricio Castillo
26 Radiation- and Chemotherapy-Induced Leukoencephalopathy
Maria Vittoria Spampinato
27 Leukoaraiosis (Microangiopathy)
Alessandro Cianfoni
28 Periventricular Edema in Acute Hydrocephalus
Alessandro Cianfoni
29 Hypoglycemia
Benjamin Huang
30 X-linked Adrenoleukodystrophy (X-ALD)
Mariasavina Severino
31 Periventricular Leukomalacia (PVL)
Alessandro Cianfoni
32 Posterior Reversible Encephalopathy Syndrome (PRES,
Hypertensive Encephalopathy)
Maria Vittoria Spampinato and Zoran Rumboldt
33 Alexander Disease
Mariasavina Severino
34 Metachromatic Leukodystrophy
Andrea Rossi and Zoran Rumboldt
35 Neurodegenerative Langerhans Cell Histiocytosis (ND-LCH)
Zoran Rumboldt and Andrea Rossi
36 Remote Cerebellar Hemorrhage
Maria Gisele Matheus
37 Spontaneous Intracranial Hypotension
Maria Vittoria Spampinato
Other Relevant Cases
59 Multiple System Atrophy (MSA)
Zoran Rumboldt and Mauricio Castillo
60 Maple Syrup Urine Disease (MSUD)
Andrea Rossi
66 Osmotic Myelinolysis
Mauricio Castillo
87 Benign External Hydrocephalus
Maria Vittoria Spampinato
88 Normal Pressure Hydrocephalus
Alessandro Cianfoni
89 Alzheimer Disease
Maria Vittoria Spampinato
90 Frontotemporal Lobar Dementia
Maria Vittoria Spampinato
91 Huntington Disease
Zoran Rumboldt and Benjamin Huang
184 Congenital Cytomegalovirus Infection
Zoran Rumboldt and Chen Hoffman ….

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