Plants that Fight Cancer, Second Edition 2nd Edition

Plants that Fight Cancer, Second Edition 2nd EditionPlants that Fight Cancer, Second Edition is a compilation that reviews cancer treatment and research-based information on the plant kingdom as the source of both known and novel chemical moieties and mixtures, many of them still under identification. This new edition follows the organization of the first book with a considerable expansion of content that more than doubles the volume of information.

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Divided into four segments, the first part is dedicated to a review of our current knowledge of cancer, the different types and incidence, the molecular pathways of the disease, and the various treatment protocols, with an emphasis on chemotherapy. The second part is a brief journey in pharmacognosy, with detailed information about each of the fourteen different chemical groups of plant secondary metabolites, their use in cancer chemotherapy, and updated information on the biotechnological production of the most representative compounds in clinical practice.

The third part of the book comprises six chapters dedicated to either plant chemotherapeutical approaches to specific cancer types (e.g. bladder, prostate) or specific groups of plant secondary metabolites with novel and promising properties for cancer treatment (e.g. naphthoquinones, lectins, phenanthridone alkaloids). The fourth part, containing investigative information on almost 300 individual plant species with established anticancer properties, either on a clinical or in vitro level, is with no doubt the most analytical.

This new edition contains chapters on cytotoxic phenanthridone alkaloid constituents of the Amaryllidaceae; naphthoquinone-contained anticancer terrestrial plants; polyphenols and cancer immunology; medicinal plant product-based fabrication nanoparticles (Au and Ag) and their anticancer effects; bladder and prostate cancer; and plant lectins in cancer treatment.

FEATURES

• Provides efficient information for all kinds of cancer and plant chemotherapeutical approaches to specific cancer types

• Discusses specific groups of plant secondary metabolites with novel and promising properties for cancer treatment

• Provides scientific information for medicinal uses of various plants

• Contains analytical information on almost 300 individual plant species with established anticancer properties, either on a clinical or in vitro level

• Focuses on plant genera and species that are either already used in cancer chemotherapy or have been identified with antitumor and antileukemic properties to a bigger or lesser extent

Plants that Fight Cancer, Second Edition 2nd Edition

by Spyridon E. Kintzios (Editor), Maria G. Barberaki (Editor)

ISBN-13: 978-1498726405
ISBN-10: 1498726402

Plants that Fight Cancer, Second Edition 2nd Edition Contents

Preface……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………..ix
Editors……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………..xi
List of Contributors………………………………………………………………………………………………………… xiii
Chapter 1
Cancer: A Brief Overview of the Disease and Its Treatment ……………………………………………………1
Spyridon E. Kintzios
Chapter 2
The Plant Kingdom: Nature’s Pharmacy for Cancer Treatment………………………………………………25
Spyridon E. Kintzios
Chapter 3
Cytotoxic Phenanthridone Alkaloid Constituents of the Amaryllidaceae ……………………………….. 53
Jerald J. Nair and Johannes van Staden
Chapter 4
Naphthoquinone Constituents of Anticancer Terrestrial Plants ………………………………………………85
Jia-hua Cui and Shao-shun Li
Chapter 5
Polyphenols and Cancer Immunology………………………………………………………………………………. 107
Roman Paduch
Chapter 6
Medicinal Plant Product-Based Fabrication Nanoparticles (Au and Ag) and Their
Anticancer Effects …………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 133
Azamal Husen
Chapter 7
Bladder and Prostate Cancer……………………………………………………………………………………………. 149
Charlie Khoo, Yiannis Philippou, Marios Hadjipavlou, and Abhay Rane
Chapter 8
Plant Lectins in Cancer Treatment: The Case of Viscum album L. ………………………………………. 167
Vasileios Tsekouras
viii Contents
Chapter 9
Plants Species with Anticancer Activity……………………………………………………………………………. 185
Evangelia Flampouri, Spyridon Kintzios, and Maria Barberaki
Appendix………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 451
Index ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 491
ix

Plants that Fight Cancer, Second Edition 2nd Edition Preface

Sixteen years after the publication of the first edition of Plants that Fight Cancer remarkable progress has been observed in the research and development of plant-derived anticancer drugs. This is in part reflected on the continuously increasing number of published original research articles and reference books related to the topic of cancer phytotherapy. Indeed, more than 3,000 articles in international, peer-reviewed journals have been published each year of the last six years.

More significant, however, is the fact that a series of Phase III clinical trials have been completed during the period, decisively providing evidence of the clinical efficiency of an elite group of plant-derived compounds and extracts. In light of these developments, interest in the investigation of the anticancer properties of yet unexplored plant species has been renewed. The goal of this book is to provide a review, as thorough and updated as possible, of the stateof-art of cancer treatment and research based on the plant kingdom as the source of both known and novel chemical moieties and mixtures, many of them still under investigation. In accordance with the first edition, we decided not to include plant-based cancer-chemopreventive species and substances, since this is a topic that is regularly and extensively covered in other volumes, contemporary and past.
On the contrary, we opted to focus on plant genera and species that are either already used in cancer chemotherapy or have been identified with antitumor and antileukemic properties to a bigger or lesser extent. This second edition follows the organization of its predecessor with a considerable expansion of content to more than double the volume of information. The first part is dedicated to a review of our current knowledge of cancer, its different types and incidence, the molecular pathways of the disease, and the various treatment approaches, with an emphasis on chemotherapy.
The second part is a brief journey in pharmacognosy, with detailed information about each of the 14 different chemical groups of plant secondary metabolites, their use in cancer chemotherapy, and updated information
on the biotechnological production of the most representative compounds in clinical practice. The third part of the book comprises six chapters and is dedicated to either plant chemotherapeutical approaches to specific cancer types (e.g. bladder, prostate) or specific groups of plant secondary metabolites with novel and promising properties for cancer treatment (e.g. naphthoquinones, lectins, phenanthridone alkaloids). The fourth part is with no doubt the most investigative, containing analytical information on almost 300 individual plant species with established  anticancer properties, either on a clinical or in vitro level.
Compared to the first edition, this entire book has been expanded to a two-fold, updated content. The scope of  covered genera and species reflects our effort to cover—to the highest possible degree—all plant species with recorded cancer chemotherapeutic potential. Naturally, as with every review and given the dynamic research in this field, it is more than possible that we may have omitted a number of species, especially those reported after the second half of 2017. We would be grateful to readers willing to provide information on said species to be included in the next edition.
The review of algal extracts and metabolites with cytotoxic and antineoplastic activity was omitted from the present edition since we decided to focus exclusively on terrestrial plant species. The chemical structures of the vast number of different compounds reported for the individual plant species are included in the Appendix, which has also been considerably expanded. In addition, all figures and graphic content of the original version have been entirely redrawn to considerably increased quality.
We would like to express our gratitude to Taylor & Francis Publishers for entrusting us with this challenging project. The personal attention and support provided by Alice Oven, Laura Piedrahita, Randy Brehm, Jennifer Blaise, John Sulzycki, and Jill Jurgensen at Taylor & Francis throughout this demanding, but very rewarding, journey was a decisive element in the timely delivery of the  x Preface second edition. The completion of this book would not be possible without the valuable assistance of the following students of the Department of Biotechnology at the Agricultural University of Athens: Sophia Nikolaou, Eleni Kapetanou, Antonis Kakalis, George Zisios, Panagiotis-Leonardos Doukas, and Pavlos Boulgaris. We warmly acknowledge their contribution to the compilation and
classification of the excessive bibliographical data.
We hope that the book at hand will be a useful guide and stimulate further interest for research in the phytotherapy of cancer among the international scientific and medical community as well as inspire students to follow a career in pharmacognosy.
The Editors

Plants that Fight Cancer, Second Edition 2nd Edition Editors

Professor Spyridon Kintzios is the Rector of the Agricultural University of Athens (AUA) and the founder and Director of the Laboratory of Cell Technology and the AUA Center for Applications of Cell Biological Technologies. He received his PhD in Genetics and Plant Breeding from the Technical University of Munich and has a working experience of over 30 years in biotechnology.
He is the author/co-author of 110 peer-reviewed articles in cited international scientific journals, as well as the author or co-author of more than 100 international book chapters and conference presentations. He is also the editor of five international books, a fellow of several scientific societies, and a member of several public, academic, and industry committees in Greece and abroad.
Dr. Maria Barberaki graduated from the Department of Agricultural Biotechnology, Agricultural University of Athens, Greece. Her PhD study was focused on the production of secondary products with medicinal use from Viscum album using biotechnological methods. Dr. Barberaki has considerable working experience at international pharmaceutical companies. She was one of the editors of the first edition of Plants that Fight Cancer. She currently works in Secondary and Vocational Education.
Dr. Evangelia Flampouri holds a PhD in Agricultural Sciences specializing in mammalian toxicology, a Master of Arts degree in Bioactive Products and Protein Technology, and a Bachelor of Arts degree in Agricultural Biotechnology. She has over ten years of experience in academic and industrial research projects. She has worked as a contracted Associate Professor at the Agricultural University of Athens, teaching Pharmacognosy and Bioactive Products. She is the author/co-author of various peer-reviewed articles in cited international scientific journals….

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