Ultrasound Imaging in Reproductive Medicine: Advances in Infertility Work-up, Treatment and ART2nd ed. 2019 Edition

Ultrasound Imaging in Reproductive Medicine: Advances in Infertility Work-up, Treatment and ART Edition 2Now in an updated edition, this is the most comprehensive book on modern ultrasound imaging in assisted reproductive technology (ART) and reproductive medicine. Fully revised and expanded, it covers emerging technologies possible with the improvement in ultrasound equipment.

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3-D monitoring of ovarian follicles, bidirectional vibrant color and Doppler, and improved 3-D and 4-D imaging of reproductive structures are discussed. MRI-guided ultrasound procedures are covered, and comparisons of 3-D imaging with MRI imaging for uterine anomalies is reviewed with an emphasis on the advantages of 3-D performed in the gynecologist’s office, and as a less expensive modality.

The overall approach of the original edition is maintained, starting with ultrasound safety and technique and diagnosis of the ovary, uterus and fallopian tubes (both normal and pathologic), followed by both male and female infertility and ART treatments and procedures. Ultrasound monitoring of follicular development, the endometrium, and as an aid in embryo transfer to maximize IVF success rates are reviewed.

Topics new to this edition include updated information on the diagnosis of benign and malignant adnexal masses, 3-D follicle monitoring, and the diagnosis of adenomyosis and endometriosis, including deep inseminated endometriosis. Additionally, the evaluation of endometrial receptivity, the use of contrasts for fallopian tube patency, controversies regarding septate uterus versus arcurate uterus with the use of 3-D ultrasound, and 3-D ultrasound with saline infusion sonogram and early pregnancy ultrasound are all discussed.

An excellent resource for reproductive medicine and ART specialists, gynecologists and ultrasonographers alike, Ultrasound Imaging in Reproductive Medicine, Second Edition covers all that clinicians need to know about the role of ultrasound, from the first time a woman comes into the clinic for treatment, including ART, to early pregnancy monitoring. See better, do ART better.

Ultrasound Imaging in Reproductive Medicine: Advances in Infertility Work-up, Treatment and ART 2nd ed. 2019 Edition
by Laurel A. Stadtmauer (Editor), Ilan Tur-Kaspa (Editor)
ISBN-13: 978-3030166984
ISBN-10: 3030166988


Ultrasound Imaging in Reproductive Medicine: Advances in Infertility Work-up, Treatment and ART 2nd ed. 2019 Edition – Content

Part I Safety in Ultrasound
1 Ultrasound in Reproductive Medicine: Is It Safe? . . . . . . . . . . . 3
Jacques S. Abramowicz
Part II Ultrasound Techniques
2 Basics of Three-Dimensional Ultrasound
and Applications in Reproductive Medicine . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21
Maximilian Murtinger and Maximilian Schuff
3 Two-Dimensional and Three-Dimensional Doppler
in Reproductive Medicine . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 43
Ernest Hung Yu Ng
Part III Ultrasound of the Ovary
4 The Normal Ovary: Changes in the Menstrual Cycle . . . . . . . . . 59
Renato Bauman and Ursula Res Muravec
5 Ultrasound and Ovarian Reserve . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 75
Laurel A. Stadtmauer, Mai Tran, Alessandra Kovac,
and Ilan Tur-Kaspa
6 PCOS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 91
Ana M. Monzo, Nikolaos Prapas, and Artemis Karkanaki
Part IV Ultrasound of the Uterus
7 The Normal Uterus . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 113
Khaled Sakhel, Alfred Z. Abuhamad,
and Callum Andrew Potts
8 Congenital Uterine Anomalies . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 121
Beth W. Rackow
9 Uterine Fibroids . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 137
Bradley S. Hurst
Contents
xiv
10 Uterine Polyps . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 155
Silvina M. Bocca, Bijan Morshedi, and Alena D. Naumova
11 Intrauterine Adhesions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 181
Gautam Nand Allahbadia, Akanksha Allahbadia Gupta,
and A. H. Maham
12 Sonohysterography (SHG) in Reproductive Medicine . . . . . . . . 199
Ilan Tur-Kaspa, Alberto Revelli, Laurel A. Stadtmauer,
and David P. Cohen
Part V Ultrasound and Male Infertility
13 Ultrasound in Male Infertility . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 213
Isaac Samuel Lam, Landon W. Trost, David D. Casalino,
and Robert E. Brannigan
Part VI Ultrasound and ART Techniques
14 Evaluation of Tubal Patency (HyCoSy, Doppler) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 239
Kamal Ojha, Tuhina Goel, and Dimuthu Vinayagam
15 Ultrasound in Follicle Monitoring
for Ovulation Induction/IUI . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 249
Josef Blankstein, Peter Aziz, Shumal Malepati,
and Jawaria Amir
16 2D Ultrasound in Follicle Monitoring for ART . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 273
Gianluca Gennarelli, Tomer Tur-Kaspa, Alberto Revelli,
Mette Toftager, and David P. Cohen
17 SonoAVC (Sonographic-Based Automated Volume Count) . . . . . 285
Adela Rodrıguez-Fuentes, Jairo Hernández,
Jean Paul Rouleau, and Angela Palumbo
18 Ultrasound-Guided Surgical Procedures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 305
Audrey M. Marsidi, Donna R. Session,
and Jennifer Fay Kawwass
19 Ultrasound and Ovarian Hyperstimulation Syndrome . . . . . . . . 321
Laura P. Smith
20 Ultrasound Guidance in Embryo Transfer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 335
Alberto Revelli, Tomer Tur-Kaspa, and Edmond Confino
21 Virtual Hysterosalpingography: A Noninvasive
Diagnostic Technique for the Evaluation
of the Female Reproductive Tract . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 345
Patricia Carrascosa, Carlos Capuñay, Juan Mariano Baronio,
and Carlos E. Sueldo
Contents
xv
22 Modern Evaluation of Endometrial Receptivity . . . . . . . . . . . . . 357
Jose Miravet-Valenciano, Maria Ruiz-Alonso,
and Carlos Simón
Part VII Ultrasound and Pregnancy
23 Early Pregnancy Ultrasound . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 369
Laura Detti
24 Ectopic Pregnancy. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 381
Donald L. Fylstra
Index . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 395


Ultrasound Imaging in Reproductive Medicine: Advances in Infertility Work-up, Treatment and ART 2nd ed. 2019 Edition – Part I

Safety in Ultrasound

Ultrasound in Reproductive Medicine: Is It Safe?

Jacques S. Abramowicz

Introduction
The first published description of the clinical use of ultrasound in obstetrics and gynecology (OB-GYN) dates from 1958 [1] and describes the value of this new technology for the diagnosis of abdominal masses, specifically ovarian cysts.

Since then its use has increased exponentially and is ubiquitous in the daily practice of OB-GYN. Another OB-GYN specialty that has equally burgeoned is reproductive endocrinology and infertility (REI). These two disciplines are
strongly interconnected, in part because of the major progress made in image quality and the introduction of new modalities, such as color and spectral Doppler or three-dimensional (3D) ultrasound, which has greatly facilitated diagnosis, interventions, and certain forms of therapy in fertility treatments and assisted reproductive technology.

Because ultrasound is a waveform, with alternating positive and negative pressure, it has effects in tissues it traverses. These may be thermal and nonthermal (or mechanical). The question that bears asking is: can these effects be detrimental to the developing follicle, ovum, or early fetus? A publication describing premature ovulation in women whose ovaries were exposed to ultrasound is often quoted but dates from 1982 [2].

This chapter will briefly describe the physics of ultrasound and its interaction with live tissue, define bioeffects and on-screen indicators of potential risk, focus on ovarian scanning in ART, and discuss fetus susceptibility and safety measures. Bioeffects and safety of ultrasound in pregnancy, in general, and in later gestation, in particular, will not be addressed.

The interested reader may consult various book chapters and reviews on this topic [3–11]. A Short Review of Ultrasound Physics Ultrasound is a waveform, characterized by various parameters:
• Frequency is the number of cycles per second, measured in hertz (Hz). Human ears can discern sounds at approximately 20 Hz to 20,000 HZ. Diagnostic ultrasound is, generally, 2–15 million Hz (2–15 megahertz, MHz).
• Wavelength is the distance between two corresponding points on a particular wave. It is inversely proportional to the frequency (0.2–1.5 mm).
• Resolution (i.e., the shortest distance between two points which allows these two points to be displayed separately) depends on the wave…………..

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