Diagnosis of Liver Disease 2nd ed. 2019 Edition

Diagnosis of Liver Disease 2nd ed. 2019 EditionThis book guides practitioners in the assessment of patients with a liver problem. The emphasis is on the role of macro- and microscopic pathology in elucidating pathogenesis as well as identifying confounding features of image findings that may lead to a more elaborate differential diagnosis.

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If appropriate, the role of light and electron microscopic examination, along with the role of specific stains and molecular techniques, is illustrated. In addition, the concept of each liver disease is summarized briefly and its up-to-data is provided, and unresolved problems in diagnosis, treatment, and pathogenesis are clearly described.
The approach in this book is a practical one with a focus on the evaluation of illustrative cases, simultaneously demonstrating cross-sectional images (ultrasonography, computed tomography, magnetic resonance imaging, and angiography), pathological findings, and peritoneoscopic images.
The diagnosis and therapy are summed up in helpful tables, and association of clinical manifestations with image analysis and pathological findings is shown to be important in differential diagnosis and treatment. With the authors comprising internationally renowned experts, this book will serve as a useful source of information for medical students, physicians, internists, hepatologists, gastroenterologists, radiologists, and pathologists worldwide.

Diagnosis of Liver Disease 2nd ed. 2019 Edition
by Etsuko Hashimoto (Editor), Paul Y. Kwo (Editor), Arief A. Suriawinata (Editor), Wilson M.S. Tsui (Editor), Masaki Iwai (Editor)
ISBN-13: 978-9811368059
ISBN-10: 9811368058

Diagnosis of Liver Disease 2nd ed. 2019 Edition – content – Contents

1 Anatomy and Function… 1
Masaki Iwai, Takashi Kojima, and Arief A. Suriawinata
2 Laboratory Tests in Liver Diseases ….. 19
Yoshio Sumida, Yoshihiro Kamada, Masaki Iwai, Paul Y. Kwo,
and Masashi Yoneda
3 Acute Hepatitis…..35
Yoshinori Harada and Masaki Iwai
4 Acute Liver Failure…. 45
Seiichi Mawatari, Yoshinori Harada, Masaki Iwai, Paul Y. Kwo, and Akio Ido
5 Chronic Hepatitis …..51
Paul Y. Kwo and Nimy John
6 Liver Cirrhosis …..61
Terumi Takahara, Masaki Iwai, and Wilson M. S. Tsui
7 Alcoholic Liver Disease and Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease/Nonalcoholic
Steatohepatitis…… 75
Etsuko Hashimoto, Masaki Iwai, and Arief A. Suriawinata
8 Drug-Induced Liver Injury …. ..85
Bing Ren, Arief A. Suriawinata, and Masaki Iwai
9 Autoimmune Liver Disease …. …. 97
Mikio Zeniya, Masaki Iwai, and Arief A. Suriawinata
10 Developmental Abnormalities of the Bile Duct and Foregut……119
Masaki Iwai, Takahiro Mori, and Wilson M. S. Tsui
11 Vascular Disorders in the Liver …. ….129
Masahiko Koda, Tomomitsu Matono, Makiko Taniai, and Masaki Iwai
12 Metabolic Disorders in the Liver. …. ..151
Masaki Iwai, Atsushi Kitamura, Hajime Isomoto, Yutaka Horie,
and Wilson M. S. Tsui
13 Hyperbilirubinemia …..173
Toshinori Kamisako, Masaki Iwai, and Wilson M. S. Tsui
14 Granulomatous Liver Diseases …. ….183
Masako Mishima, Masahiko Koda, and Wilson M. S. Tsui
15 Liver Disorders in Systemic Diseases ….195
Masaki Iwai, Kenichi Miyoshi, Masahiko Koda, and Wilson M. S. Tsui
16 Liver Tumor I: Benign Tumors and Tumor-Like Lesions……211
Wilson M. S. Tsui, Takahiro Mori, and Masaki Iwai
Contents
xiv
17 Liver Tumors II: Malignant Tumors of the Liver …..235
Naoshi Nishida, Ryuichi Kita, Kenichi Miyoshi, Masahiko Koda,
Masaki Iwai, and Arief A. Suriawinata
18 Metastatic Liver Tumors 269
Louis J. Vaickus, Arief A. Suriawinata, and Masaki Iwai
19 Liver Pathology in Transplantation …. 277
Hironori Haga
20 Peritoneal Diseases ….. 287
Masaki Iwai, Yosuke Kunishi, and Arief A. Suriawinata
Index . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 299


Diagnosis of Liver Disease 2nd ed. 2019 Edition – content – Anatomy and Function

Masaki Iwai, Takashi Kojima, and Arief A. Suriawinata

Contents
1.1 Anatomy of the Liver 1
1.2 Anatomy of the Biliary Tract 3
1.3 Development of the Liver 3
1.4 Functional Heterogeneity of the Liver 6
1.5 Microanatomy of the Liver 7
1.6 Junctional Complex Between Hepatocytes 9
1.7 Regeneration 14
References 16

Abbreviations
AFP Alpha fetoprotein
cAMP cyclic adenosine 3′,5′-monophosphate
cGMP cyclic guanosine 3′,5′-monophosphate
Cx Connexin
EGFR Epidermal growth factor receptor
GVHD Graft-versus-host disease
HCV Hepatitis C virus
IL-6 Interleukin-6
JAMs Junctional adhesion molecules
PDZ Postsynaptic density 95; Discs large, zonula
occludens
PKC Protein kinase C
PSC Primary sclerosing cholangitis
SR-BI Scavenger receptor BI
TNF Tumor necrosis factor
ZO Zonula occludens

1.1 Anatomy of the Liver

The liver weighing 1200–1500 g is the largest organ in the human adult and occupies about 2% of body weight. There are two anatomical lobes in the liver, right and left, with the right lobe six times in volume than the left lobe. The right and left lobes are separated anteriorly by the falciform ligament, posteriorly by ligamentum venosum, and inferiorly by ligamentum teres.

The Couinaud classification [1] defines eight segments of the liver, and the Bismuth classification [2] divides it into four sectors; they are subdivided into right anterior (V and VIII), right posterior (VI and VII), left medial (IV), or left lateral (II and III) segment and caudate lobe (I) (Fig. 1.1). The liver receives double blood supply from the portal vein and hepatic artery.

The portal vein brings about 65% of hepatic blood flow to the liver from the intestine and spleen, while the
hepatic artery brings the remainder 35% from the celiac axis. These vessels enter the liver through the porta hepatis. Inside……………..

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