Essentials of Nursing Research: Appraising Evidence for Nursing Practice Ninth, North American Edition

Essentials of Nursing Research: Appraising Evidence for Nursing Practice Ninthby Denise F. Polit PhD FAAN (Author), Cheryl Tatano Beck DNSc CNM FAAN (Author)

Give your students everything they need to actively learn how to apply research to nursing practice.
Updated to reflect the latest innovations in research methods, this worldwide bestseller helps students learn how to read and critique research reports, speak the language of nursing research, and develop an appreciation of research to enhance nursing practice.

Get ebook : $18.00 


AJN award-winning authors Denise Polit and Cheryl Beck present research essentials, dig into the research steps, and explore quantitative and qualitative research, igniting student curiosity and encouraging them to pursue a professional pathway that incorporates thoughtful appraisals of evidence.

Highlights of the Ninth Edition

  • Enhanced accessibility. The presentation of complex topics is simplified and streamlined, incorporating more straightforward language.
  • New content. The book’s coverage of state-of-the-art research concepts and approaches includes new discussions of quality improvement projects as well as clinical significance, a seldom-mentioned but important topic that has recently gained prominence among nurse researchers.
  • Reorganized coverage. The book’s new structure is organized by methodologic content to offer greater continuity and facilitate better understanding of key methodologic differences between quantitative and qualitative research.
  • Critiquing guidelines and support. Each chapter provides questions that walk students through a study, drawing attention to aspects of the study that can be critiqued by research consumers. In addition, full-length research articles and sample critiques at the end of the book provide opportunities for further critiquing practice.
  • Research examples. One or two actual research examples at the end of each chapter sharpen readers’ critical thinking skills, and research examples throughout the text illustrate key points and stimulate students’ thinking about areas of research inquiry.
  • Practical guidance . Translation of the abstract notions of research methods into more concrete applications includes tips that explain confusing issues in actual research articles.
  • New test generator . Hundreds of multiple-choice questions, which are completely new and written by the book’s authors, help instructors assess their students’ understanding of the chapter content.

Essentials of Nursing Research: Appraising Evidence for Nursing Practice CONTENTS

Part 1 Overview of Nursing Research and Its Role in Evidence-Based
Practice
1 Introduction to Nursing Research in an Evidence-Based Practice Environment
2 Fundamentals of Evidence-Based Nursing Practice
3 Key Concepts and Steps in Quantitative and Qualitative Research
4 Reading and Critiquing Research Articles
5 Ethics in Research
Part 2 Preliminary Steps in Quantitative and Qualitative Research
6 Research Problems, Research Questions, and Hypotheses
7 Finding and Reviewing Research Evidence in the Literature
8 Theoretical and Conceptual Frameworks
Part 3 Designs and Methods for Quantitative and Qualitative Nursing
Research
9 Quantitative Research Design
10 Sampling and Data Collection in Quantitative Studies
11 Qualitative Designs and Approaches
12 Sampling and Data Collection in Qualitative Studies
13 Mixed Methods and Other Special Types of Research
Part 4 Analysis and Interpretation in Quantitative and Qualitative
Research
14 Statistical Analysis of Quantitative Data
15 Interpretation and Clinical Significance in Quantitative Research
16 Analysis of Qualitative Data
17 Trustworthiness and Integrity in Qualitative Research
29
18 Systematic Reviews: Meta-Analysis and Metasynthesis
Appendix A Swenson et al.’s (2016) Study: Parents’ Use of Praise and Criticism in
a Sample of Young Children Seeking Mental Health Services
Appendix B Beck and Watson’s (2010) Study: Subsequent Childbirth After a
Previous Traumatic Birth
Appendix C Wilson et al.’s (2016) Study: A Randomized Controlled Trial of an
Individualized Preoperative Education Intervention for Symptom
Management After Total Knee Arthroplasty
Critique of Wilson and Colleagues’ Study
Appendix D Sawyer et al.’s (2010) Study: Dif erences in Perceptions of the
Diagnosis and Treatment of Obstructive Sleep Apnea and Continuous
Positive Airway Pressure Therapy Among Adherers and Nonadherers
Critique of Sawyer and Colleagues’ Study
Glossary
Index

Essentials of Nursing Research: Appraising Evidence for Nursing Practice CHAPTER SUPPLEMENTS AVAILABLE ON

Supplement for Chapter 1 The History of Nursing Research
Supplement for Chapter 2 Evaluating Clinical Practice Guidelines—AGREE II
Supplement for Chapter 3 Deductive and Inductive Reasoning
Supplement for Chapter 4 Guide to an Overall Critique of a Quantitative
Research Report and Guide to an Overall Critique of a
Qualitative Research Report
Supplement for Chapter 5 Informed Consent
Supplement for Chapter 6 Simple and Complex Hypotheses
Supplement for Chapter 7 Finding Evidence for an EBP Inquiry in PubMed
Supplement for Chapter 8 Prominent Conceptual Models of Nursing Used by
Nurse Researchers
Supplement for Chapter 9 Selected Experimental and Quasi-Experimental
Designs: Diagrams, Uses, and Drawbacks
Supplement for Chapter 10 Vignettes and Q-Sorts
Supplement for Chapter 11 Qualitative Descriptive Studies
30
Supplement for Chapter 12 Transferability and Generalizability
Supplement for Chapter 13 Other Specific Types of Research
Supplement for Chapter 14 Multivariate Statistics
Supplement for Chapter 15 Research Biases
Supplement for Chapter 16 A Glaserian Grounded Theory Study: Illustrative
Materials
Supplement for Chapter 17 Whittemore and Colleagues’ Framework of Quality
Criteria in Qualitative Research
Supplement for Chapter 18 Publication Bias in Meta-Analyses

Part 1 Overview of Nursing Research and Its
Role in Evidence-Based Practice
1
Introduction to Nursing Research in
an Evidence-Based Practice
Environment
Learning Objectives
On completing this chapter, you will be able to:
Understand why research is important in nursing
Discuss the need for evidence-based practice
Describe broad historical trends and future directions in nursing research
Identify alternative sources of evidence for nursing practice
Describe major characteristics of the positivist and constructivist paradigm
Compare the traditional scientific method (quantitative research) with constructivist
methods (qualitative research)
Identify several purposes of quantitative and qualitative research
Define new terms in the chapter
Key Terms
Assumption
Cause-probing research
Clinical nursing research
Clinical significance
Constructivist paradigm
Empirical evidence
Evidence-based practice (EBP)
Generalizability
Journal club
32
Nursing research
Paradigm
Positivist paradigm
Qualitative research
Quantitative research
Research
Research methods
Scientific method
Systematic review

Essentials of Nursing Research: Appraising Evidence for Nursing Practice NURSING RESEARCH IN PERSPECTIVE

We know that many of you readers are not taking this course because you plan to become nurse researchers. Yet, we are also confident that many of you will participate in research-related activities during your careers, and virtually all of you will be expected to be research-savvy at a basic level. Although you may not yet grasp the relevance of research in your career as a nurse, we hope that you will come to see the value of nursing research during this course and will be inspired by the efforts of the thousands of nurse researchers now working worldwide to improve patient care. You
are embarking on a lifelong journey in which research will play a role.

We hope to prepare you to enjoy the voyage. What Is Nursing Research? Whether you know it or not, you have already done a lot of research. When you use the Internet to find the “best deal” on a laptop or an airfare, you start with a question (e.g., Who has the best deal for what I want?), collect the information by searching different
websites, and then come to a conclusion. This “everyday research” has much in common with formal research—but, of course, there are important differences, too.

As a formal enterprise, research is systematic inquiry that uses disciplined methods to answer questions and solve problems. The ultimate goal of formal research is to gain knowledge that would be useful for many people. Nursing research is systematic inquiry designed to develop trustworthy evidence about issues of importance to nurses and their clients. In this book, we emphasize clinical nursing research, which is research designed to guide nursing practice. Clinical nursing research typically begins with questions stemming from practice problems—problems you may have already encountered.

Examples of nursing research questions Does a text message notification process help to reduce follow-up time for women with abnormal mammograms? (Oakley-Girvan et al., 2016) What are the daily experiences of patients receiving hemodialysis treatment for end-stage renal disease? (Chiaranai, 2016) TIP You may have the impression that research is abstract and irrelevant to practicing nurses. But nursing research is about real people with real
problems, and studying those problems offers opportunities to solve or address them through improvements to nursing care.

The Importance of Research to Evidence-Based Nursing Nursing has experienced profound changes in the past few decades. Nurses are increasingly expected to understand and undertake research and to base their practice on
evidence from research—that is, to adopt an evidence-based practice (EBP). EBP, broadly defined, is the use of the best evidence in making patient care decisions. Such evidence typically comes from research conducted by nurses and other health care professionals. Nurse leaders recognize the need to base specific nursing decisions on
evidence indicating that the decisions are clinically appropriate and cost-effective and result in positive client outcomes.

In some countries, research plays an important role in nursing credentialing and status. For example, the American Nurses Credentialing Center—an arm of the American Nurses Association—has developed a Magnet Recognition Program to recognize health care organizations that provide high-quality nursing care. To achieveMagnet status, practice environments must demonstrate a sustained commitment to EBP and nursing research. Changes to nursing practice are happening every day because of EBP efforts.

Example of evidence-based practice Many clinical practice changes reflect the impact of research. For example,
“kangaroo care,” the holding of diaper-clad preterm infants skin-to-skin, chest-tochest by parents, is now widely practiced in neonatal intensive care units (NICUs), but in the early 1990s, only a minority of NICUs offered kangaroo care options. The adoption of this practice reflects good evidence that early skin-to-skin contact has clinical benefits and no negative side effects (Ludington-Hoe, 2011; Moore et al., 2012). Some of this evidence comes from rigorous studies by nurse researchers (e.g., Campbell-Yeo et al., 2013; Cong et al., 2009; Cong et al., 2011; Holditch-Davis et
al., 2014; Lowson et al., 2015).

Roles of Nurses in Research In the current EBP environment, every nurse is likely to engage in one or more activities
along a continuum of research participation. At one end of the continuum are users or consumers of nursing research—nurses who read research reports to keep up-to-date on findings that may affect their practice. EBP depends on well-informed nursing research consumers.

At the other end of the continuum are the producers of nursing research: nurses who actively design and undertake studies. At one time, most nurse researchers were academics who taught in schools of nursing, but research is increasingly being conducted by practicing nurses who want to find what works best for their clients. Between these two end points on the continuum lie a variety of research activities in which nurses engage. Even if you never conduct a study, you may do one of the

following:
1. Contribute an idea for a clinical inquiry
2. Assist in collecting research information
3. Offer advice to clients about participating in a study
4. Search for research evidence
5. Discuss the implications of a study in a journal club in your practice setting, which involves meetings to discuss research articles

In all research-related activities, nurses who have some research skills are better able than those without them to contribute to nursing and to EBP. Thus, with the research skills you gain from this book, you will be prepared to contribute to the advancement of nursing….

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