Principles of Toxicology: Environmental and Industrial Applications 3rd Edition

Principles of Toxicology: Environmental and Industrial Applications 3rd EditionA fully updated and expanded edition of the bestselling guide on toxicology and its practical application
• Covers the diverse chemical hazards encountered in the modern work and natural environment, and provides a practical understanding of these hazards

Get ebook : $13.00 


• New chapters cover the emerging areas of toxicology such as omics, computational toxicology, and nanotoxicology
• Provides clear explanations and practical understanding of the fundamentals necessary for an understanding of the effects of chemical hazards on human health and ecosystems
• Includes case histories and examples from industry demonstrate the application of toxicological principles
• Supplemented with numerous illustrations to clarify and summarize key points, annotated bibliographies, and a comprehensive glossary of toxicological terms

Principles of Toxicology: Environmental and Industrial Applications 3rd Edition
by Stephen M. Roberts (Author), Robert C. James (Author), Phillip L. Williams (Author)
ISBN-13:
 978-0470907917
ISBN-10: 0470907916

Principles of Toxicology: Environmental and Industrial Applications 3rd Edition Contents

Contributors vii
Preface ix
1 General Principles of Toxicology 1
Robert C. James, Stephen M. Roberts, and Phillip L. Williams
2 Xenobiotic Absorption, Distribution, Metabolism, and Excretion 29
Michael R. Franklin
3 Toxicokinetics 59
Rebecca A. Clewell and Harvey J. Clewell III
4 Omics Technologies in Toxicology 89
Mary Jane Cunningham
5 Toxicity of the Hematopoietic System 103
Sherilyn A. Gross
6 Hepatotoxicity: Toxic Effects on the Liver 125
Robert C. James and Stephen M. Roberts
7 Nephrotoxicity: Toxic Responses of the Kidney 139
Lawrence H. Lash
8 Neurotoxicity: Toxic Effects on the Nervous System 157
William M. Caudle and Gary W. Miller
9 Dermatotoxicity: Toxic Effects on the Skin 169
Sailesh Konda and Howard I. Maibach
10 Pulmonotoxicity: Toxic Effects in the Lung 179
Cuiqing Liu and Qinghua Sun
vi Contents
11 Immunotoxicity: Toxic Effects on the Immune System 197
Eric S. Sobel and Stephen M. Roberts
12 Toxic Effects on Reproduction 211
Mary L. Hixon
13 Developmental Toxicology 223
Vincent F. Garry and Peter L. Truran
14 Mutagenesis and Genetic Toxicology 235
Martha M. Moore, Meagan B. Myers, and Robert H. Heflich
15 Chemical Carcinogenesis 259
James E. Klaunig
16 Properties and Effects of Metals 283
David B. Mayfield, Ari S. Lewis, Lisa A. Bailey, and Barbara D. Beck
17 Properties and Effects of Pesticides 309
Janice Britt
18 Properties and Effects of Solvents and Solvent-Like Chemicals 325
Christopher M. Teaf, Michele M. Garber, and J. Michael Kuperberg
19 Nanotoxicology 359
Hongbo Ma, Steve Diamond, Georgia Hinkley, and Stephen M. Roberts
20 Computational Toxicology 373
Richard S. Judson, David M. Reif, and Keith A. Houck
21 Epidemiological Issues in Occupational and Environmental Health 391
Michael S. Bloom and John E. Vena
22 Occupational and Environmental Health 411
Brenda S. Buikema, T. Renée Anthony, and Fredric Gerr
23 Human Health Risk Assessment 425
Leah D. Stuchal, Robert C. James, and Stephen M. Roberts
Glossary 457
Index 471

1

Principles of Toxicology: Environmental and Industrial Applications 3rd Edition

General Principles of Toxicology
Robert C. James, Stephen M. Roberts, and Phillip L. Williams

The intent of this chapter is to provide a concise description of the basic principles of toxicology and to illustrate how
these principles are used to make reasonable judgments about the potential health hazards and the risks associated
with chemical exposures. This chapter explains:

• Some basic definitions and terminology
• What toxicologists study, the scientific disciplines they draw upon, and the specialized areas of interest within
toxicology
• Descriptive toxicology and the use of animal studies as the primary basis for hazard identification, the importance of dose, and the generation of dose–response relationships
• How dose–response data might be used to assess safety or risk
• Factors that might alter a chemical’s toxicity or the
dose–response relationship
• The basic methods for extrapolating dose–response data when developing exposure guidelines of public
health interest

1.1 BASIC DEFINITIONS AND TERMINOLOGY

The literal meaning of the term toxicology is “the study of poisons.” The root word toxic entered the English language
around 1655 from the Late Latin word toxicus (which meant poisonous), itself derived from toxikón, an ancient Greek term for poisons into which arrows were dipped. The early history of toxicology focused on the understanding and uses of different poisons, and perhaps even today most people tend to think of a chemical or products labeled as a “toxic” substance” as that group of chemicals for which minimal exposure inevitably leads to death or some serious long-term adverse effect like cancer.

As toxicology has evolved into a modern science it has expanded to encompass all forms of adverse health
effects that any substance might produce. The following definitions are provided to help the reader understand several basic terms that may be used in this and other chapters:

  • Toxic—having the characteristic of being able to produce an undesirable or adverse health effect at some dose.
  • Toxicity—any toxic (adverse) effect that a chemical or physical agent might produce within a living organism.
  • Toxicology—the science that deals with the study of the adverse effects (toxicities) that chemicals or physical
    agents may produce in living organisms under specific conditions of exposure. It is a science that attempts to
    qualitatively identify all the hazards (i.e., organ toxicities) associated with a substance, as well as to quantitatively determine the exposure conditions under which those hazards/toxicities are induced. Toxicology is the
    science that experimentally investigates the occurrence, nature, incidence, mechanism, and risk factors for the
    adverse effects of toxic substances.

As these definitions indicate, the toxic responses that form the study of toxicology span a broad biological and
physiological spectrum. Effects of interest may range from something relatively minor such as irritation or tearing to a more serious response like acute and reversible liver or kidney damage, to an even more serious and permanent
disability such as cirrhosis of the liver or liver cancer. Given this broad range of potentially adverse effects to consider…

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