Easy and Interesting Approach to Human Neuroanatomy (Clinically Oriented)

Easy and Interesting Approach to Human NeuroanatomyAuthor(s): Samar Deb

Publisher: Jaypee Brothers Medical Publishers, Year: 2014

ISBN: 9789350909409

About the subject Neuroanatomy, it is well-known to all that, this branch of anatomy is characterized by various negative adjectives such as, rough and tough, difficult, less important, not much required at undergraduate level, etc. Undergraduate students are usually in a habit of ignoring or being away from it as very often they are scared of.

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But they must know that this branch of anatomy can never be avoided in professional life. Because Neuroanatomy deals with the study of nervous system which, being the master system, regulates bodily functions performed by all other systems of body.

An effort has been made to deliver this subject through this book to the doorstep of readers of all levels in easiest, simplest, and most interesting form.

Key Features:
• Text material has been carefully placed on the optimum line of demarcation between comprehensive and precise nature. Much more precise text apparently appears to be simple, but it fails to create concept. Again, if the text is too much comprehensive, it kills time and creates monotony.
• Style of presentation of the book will help the students for self-learning.
• All the figures of the book have been drawn in most simplified manner. Complicated and extensive figures have been deliberately avoided.
• Labelings of all the figures have been made in more scientific way. Optimum words have been used for the labeling, for which a reader will be able to understand a part of text even only consulting the figures.
• Clinical anatomy component of the text has been written as per relevance.

Easy and Interesting Approach to Human Neuroanatomy CONTENTS

Chapter 1.
Introduction to Human Neuroanatomy
1
ƒ Principles of Functions of Nervous System
1
Chapter 2.
Nervous System in Brief 20 ƒ Central Nervous System 20 ƒ Brainstem 26 ƒ Cerebellum 28 ƒ Peripheral Nervous System 35
Chapter 3.
Peripheral End Organs 44 ƒ Receptors 44 ƒ Receptors – Other Ways of Classification 51 ƒ Motor End Organs (Effectors) 51 ƒ Motor Unit 53 ƒ Nerve Ending Related to Exocrine Gland Acini 56
Chapter 4.
Spinal Cord 57 ƒ Definition and Situation 57 ƒ Role of Spinal Cord as a Part of Central Nervous System 57 ƒ Extent 57 ƒ Important Notes in Connection with Termination 57 ƒ Parameters of Spinal Cord 57 ƒ Regional Classification of Spinal Cord Segments 58 ƒ Exit of Spinal Nerves from Vertebral Foramen 59 ƒ Correlation of Spinal Cord Segments with Vertebral Level 60 ƒ Enlargement 60 ƒ Surface Features 60 ƒ Coverings (Meninges) and Spaces Around the Spinal Cord 61 ƒ Internal Structure of Spinal Cord 63 ƒ Formation of Different Zones of Spinal Cord 64 ƒ Formation of Different Functional Cell Groups 65 ƒ Peripheral Outflow of Spinal Cord 66 ƒ Internal Structure of Spinal Cord 66 ƒ Internal Structure of Spinal Gray Matter 69 ƒ Various Cell Groups of Spinal Gray Matter 69 ƒ Cell Groups in Posterior Gray Column 69 ƒ Cell Groups in Intermediate Area of Spinal Gray Matter 70 ƒ Cell Groups in Anterior Gray Column 70 ƒ Cell Groups Around Central Canal 71 ƒ Rexed’s Lamination of Spinal Gray Matter 71 ƒ Internal Structure of Spinal White Matter 72 ƒ Rubrospinal Tract 80 ƒ Tectospinal Tract 81 ƒ Vestibulospinal Tracts 82 ƒ Reticulospinal Tract 83 ƒ Olivospinal Tract 83 ƒ Hypothalamospinal Tract 83 ƒ Solitariospinal Tract 83
CONTENTS
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Easy and Interesting Approach to Human Neuroanatomy (Clinically Oriented)
Chapter 5.
Brainstem 94
ƒ Medulla Oblongata 124
ƒ Pons 125
ƒ Midbrain 126
ƒ Traumatic Lesion 126
Chapter 6.
Cerebellum 128
ƒ Introduction 128
ƒ Position and Relations 128
ƒ Principle of Functions 129
ƒ Gross Anatomy 129
ƒ Primary Fissure and Lobes of Cerebellum 130
ƒ Phylogenetic Classification of Cerebellum 131
ƒ Internal Structure of Cerebellum 132
ƒ Structural detail of Cerebellar Cortex 134
ƒ Mechanism of Cerebellar Cortical Circuit 134
ƒ White Matter of Cerebellum 135
ƒ Nuclei of Cerebellum 135
ƒ Relationship Between Cerebellar Nuclei and Mediolateral Subdivisions of Cerebellar Cortex 136
ƒ Cerebellar Peduncles 136
ƒ Impaired Function of Paleocerebellum 138
ƒ Impaired Function of Neocerebellum 138
Chapter 7.
Fourth Ventricle of Brain 139
Chapter 8.
Cerebrum—Cortical Gray Matter 144
ƒ Introduction 144
ƒ Cerebral Hemispheres 145
ƒ Medial Surface 153
ƒ Tentorial Surface 155
ƒ Orbital Surface 155
ƒ Some Important Points about Cerebral Cortex 155
ƒ Types of Neurons in Cerebral Cortex 155
ƒ Layer of Cerebral Cortex 156
ƒ Functional Areas of Cerebral Cortex 157
ƒ Functional Areas in Frontal Lobe 157
ƒ Functional Areas in Parietal Lobe 160
ƒ Functional Areas in Occipital Lobe 161
ƒ Functional Areas in Temporal Lobe 162
Chapter 9.
Cerebrum— White Matter 163
ƒ Classification 163
ƒ Internal Capsule 172
Chapter 10.
Basal Ganglia 176
ƒ Chorea 183
ƒ Ballismus 183
ƒ Athetosis 183
ƒ Parkinson Disease 183
xiii
Contents
Chapter 11.
Lateral Ventricle of Brain 185
Chapter 12.
Diencephalon 192
ƒ Thalamus 193
ƒ Metathalamus 198
ƒ Epithalamus 200
ƒ Paraventricular Nuclei of Epithalamus 202
ƒ Habenular Nucleus and Habenular Commissure
(Consult Figures of Commissure in Chapter of White Matter of Brain) 202
ƒ Subthalamus 203
Chapter 13.
Third Ventricle of Brain 211
ƒ Tela Choroidea and Choroid Plexus 214
Chapter 14.
Meninges of Brain and Cerebrospinal Fluid 215
ƒ Dura Mater 215
ƒ Arachnoid Mater 221
ƒ Pia Mater 223
ƒ Cerebrospinal Fluid 224
Chapter 15.
Blood Supply of Brain and Spinal Cord 228
ƒ Blood Supply of Brain 228
ƒ Variations of Circle of Willis 232
ƒ Cortical Branches Supplying Different Surfaces of Cerebral Hemisphere 234
ƒ Venous Drainage of Brain 236
ƒ Blood Supply of Spinal Cord 237
ƒ Venous Drainage of Spinal Cord 239
ƒ Blood-brain Barrier 240
Chapter 16.
Reticular Formation 245
Chapter 17.
Limbic System 253
Chapter 18.
Autonomic Nervous System 260
ƒ A component – Parallel to Somatic Nervous System 260
ƒ Autonomic Nervous System and Endocrine system – Jointly Maintain Internal Environment of body 260
ƒ Composition of Autonomic Nervous System 260
ƒ Subdivision of Autonomic Nervous System – Sympathetic and Parasympathetic 261
ƒ Sympathetic Part of Autonomic Nervous System 264
ƒ Parasympathetic Part of Autonomic Nervous System 274
ƒ Injuries to Autonomic Nervous System 282
ƒ Diseases Involving Autonomic Nervous System 283
ƒ Combined Sympathetic and Parasympathetic Lesion Causing Urinary Bladder Dysfunction in Spinal Cord Injury 284
ƒ Disrupted Motor Functions of Bladder 284
ƒ Visceral Pain 285
ƒ Stomach Pain 286
ƒ Appendicular Pain 286
ƒ Renal Pain 286
ƒ Ureteric Pain 287
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Easy and Interesting Approach to Human Neuroanatomy (Clinically Oriented)
Chapter 19.
Cranial Nerves 288
ƒ Olfactory Nerve and Olfactory Pathway 288
ƒ Optic Nerve and Visual Pathway 291
ƒ Optic Nerve 293
ƒ Optic Chiasma 293
ƒ Optic Tract 293
ƒ Lateral Geniculate Body (Third of Neurons) 294
ƒ Macular Vision 294
ƒ Clinical Examination of Retina 296
ƒ Detachment of Retina 297
ƒ Various Kinds of Loss of Visual Field 297
ƒ Argyll Robertson Pupil 298
ƒ Cranial Nerves — Arising From Brainstem 299
ƒ Oculomotor Nerve 299
ƒ Postganglionic Branches of Ciliary Ganglion 302
ƒ Roots of Communication to Ciliary Ganglion 303
ƒ Trochlear Nerve 304
ƒ Trigeminal Nerve 305
ƒ Ophthalmic Nerve 308
ƒ Maxillary Nerve 311
ƒ Sphenopalatine Ganglion 312
ƒ Mandibular Nerve 313
ƒ Lingual Nerve 315
ƒ Inferior Alveolar Nerve 315
ƒ Auriculotemporal Nerve 316
ƒ Abducent Nerve 317
ƒ Facial Nerve 319
ƒ Vestibulocochlear Nerve 326
ƒ Vestibular Pathways 326
ƒ Cochlear Component of Vestibulocochlear Nerve 330
ƒ Last Four Cranial Nerves 334
ƒ Glossopharyngeal Nerve 334
ƒ Vagus Nerve 337
ƒ Accessory Nerve 343
ƒ Hypoglossal Nerve 347
Index 349

Easy and Interesting Approach to Human Neuroanatomy Introduction to Human Neuroanatomy

Human Neuroanatomy is the division of Human Anatomy which deals with of Human Nervous System. The Nervous System is defined as the “Master of all Systems” or the “Master System” of the body, because it controls or regulates all bodily functions performed
by other systems of the body, for example locomotor
system, gastrointestinal system, respiratory system.
PRINCIPLES OF FUNCTIONS OF NERVOUS
SYSTEM (FIG. 1.1)
When nervous system exerts its action over the other
systems of body, most simplified form of its action is
manifested basically as—
1. Contraction of muscles.
2. Secretion of exocrine glands.
It may be noted here that the secretion of endocrine
glands is mostly under the hormonal control.
The muscles, whose contraction is regulated by
nervous system, may be voluntary (striated or skeletal)
or involuntary (nonstriated or smooth). Contraction of
the voluntary muscles results in movement of a joint.
The involuntary muscles may be in the wall or in the
substance of viscera, which are specifically called
‘Visceral muscle’, e.g. in the wall of the gastrointestinal
tract, or tracheobronchial tree or in the substance of
any solid viscera. Again, the involuntary muscle may
be in the wall of the cardiovascular channel, e.g. in the
wall of the heart (myocardium) or in the wall of blood
vessel (tunica media). It may be also in the dermis of
the skin named the Arrectores pili.
The exocrine glands influenced by the activity of
the nervous system may be single and solitary like
any salivary gland or the lacrimal gland, or it may be
multiple and minute, like the mucous glands of the
wall of GI tract, or respiratory tract.
So result of functions of nervous system may be
summarized as follows—
1. Contraction of voluntary muscle(s): Resulting
movement of a joint. It may result movement of
some organs, like tongue, eyeball.
2. Contraction of involuntary muscle(s) present in:
a) Viscera: It is called visceral muscle.
b) Wall of the cardiovascular system: Myocardium
of heart or smooth muscle in the wall of the
blood vessels.
c) Dermis of skin called Arrectores pili: It is
attached to the root of hair follicle.
3. Secretion of exocrine glands like:
a) Salivary glands or lacrimal gland: Large and
solitary.
b) Mucous secreting glands: In the wall of GI tract
or respiratory tract–many and minute.
But it is to be noticed that the functions of nervous
system do not mean only the effects as mentioned
above, but, in gist it also performs the followings:
(Fig. 1.1).
1. It receives and carries different information from
its periphery to center, which are related to change
in external and/or internal environment.
2. It perceives or acknowledges the informations at
its center.
3. It analyzes, integrates and coordinates the informations or inputs.
2
Easy and Interesting Approach to Human Neuroanatomy (Clinically Oriented)
4. It commands for some effect after reception and,
integration or coordination of informations.
5. It stores the informations for the memory, intelligence, learning and emotion of an individual.

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